Global Research Letters

An Introduction To Soils and Agronomy

Dear agronomy journals, plant pathology journals one students. Welcome to lecture five on the topic and introduction to soils and agronomy journals, plant pathology journals for those of you who are listening to this for the first time and do not know me. My name is dr. Nikki Cooley and I run the subject. Agronomy journals, plant pathology journals 1 this subject is offered in two degrees the Bachelor of agriculture and Technology which is a partnership degree with Latrobe University of Melbourne Polytechnic agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. And the second degree this subject is offered in is the Bachelor of equine studies. A degree offered by the Melbourne Polytechnic. Please visit our website at and the other courses that we offer. Franklin Roosevelt who once stated the nation that destroys itself agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Souls destroys itself. This phrase is very true and it is now only in the latter stages of the 20th century are we actually beginning to understand the complexity of soil ecosystems and how they wrote play a very important role in agronomy journals, plant pathology journals so in this lecture. We’re going to start by introducing you to the soil. What is soil. We’re then going to follow by. What is the important to agronomists agronomy journals, plant pathology journals and plants. This will be followed by key components and characteristics of the soil so you’ll learn about texture structure the important role of pH and cation exchange capacity and. Finally we will finish with an introduction on soil fertility agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. So let’s start by understanding. What exactly is soil. Well its substrate. It’s a resource. It is a component of the mineral organic matter organisms pore space liquids and gases that make up soil it is formed over time and the formation of it involves both chemistry and biology agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Mostly it can be defined as sedimentary igneous and metamorphic rocks structure. That’s said there are many definitions of soil for example the soil glossary agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. This is from the. Society of America defines soil in several parts parts. One it said it is the consolidated mineral or organic material on an immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural agronomy journals, plant pathology journals a neutral medium for the growth of land plants and two it is the unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that has been subjected to and shows effects of genetic and environmental factors agronomy journals, plant pathology journals of climate including water and temperature effects and macro and micro organisms conditioned by relief agronomy journals, plant pathology journals acting as parent material over a period of time a product soil defers from the material from which it is derived in many physical chemical biological and morphological properties and characteristics agronomy journals, plant pathology journals.

That is a very long definition for the compare purpose of this subject agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. I will define soil as in the definition by Schaffer and Monica in 2009. This definition is in your handout notes. Soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals is the biochemically weathered uppermost layer of the Earth’s crust it is a unique ecosystem and an essential resource for the production and growth of plants and crops for the purpose of this subject agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. If you do not understand how soil is formed it is worth stopping this lecture and following the following. YouTube link to a lecture on sulfon of formation agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. This will help you understand and contextualize more how soil came about and therefore how the properties it currently has are important. The lecture is about 16 minutes long and it gives some very good explanations with smooth good graphics we’ve learnt from the slide three that the definitions of sort of soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals can be quite complex. So let’s break it down into ways that we can understand it much simpler you can separate five factors that affect what any soil is like these are the parent and mineral rock agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. This predominantly affects the soil chemistry but also can interact with the physical root growth agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. For example the second factors are temperature and water. These are very important not only to the plant agronomy journals, plant pathology journals but also to the soil configuration. The topography the diversity of organisms and the very important component time soils change over the time. They’re not static but in order to understand how the soil is made up. We look at what we call soil profiles agronomy journals, plant pathology journals.

These are a vertical section through the soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals that extend from the surface to the unweathered rock beneath and they detail. All of the components of the soil soil can be divided into layers or you can think of these as sections and these layers are called horizons agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. So what my is a typical saw profile. Look like well you can see here in the illustrated version that we start at the top with the plants and just where they intersect with the soil. This is the. Oh horizon it’s about two inches thick. It is the top layer of soil composed primarily of organic material such as litter of leaves and plants insects and microorganisms the. Oh horizon is very important in infiltration that is water and nutrients getting into the soil if infiltration characteristics of the soil are poor. Then this is not good for your crop production after your. Oh her isin. Is that of the a horizon agronomy journals, plant pathology journals this is also known as the topsoil it is where seeds germinate and plants roots thrive it is composed of mostly a mixture of sand and silt minerals and clay have been removed in a process known as either a variation you do get some organic matter broken down in this horizon or layer agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. The eave arisin not shown on the figure is between a and E and this is the zone where leaching occurs the B horizon also known as the subsoil that is the layer that contains mineral deposits that have settled down from the upper layers. This is followed by horizon agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. See this layer is called the reef golus and consists of rocks and little organic matter. Even roots don’t tend to penetrate this layer agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. The last arrives in the our horizon stands for rock and it refers to the unconsolidated rock or solid bedrock of this layer. Please note this. Slide was produced by the Institute environmental sustainable development and it’s available on SlideShare soil scientists have developed so current classifications that parallel agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. The plant taxonomy a summary of these soil classifications and where they are located in.

Australia is presented on the slide. This image was from the Journal agronomy journals, plant pathology journals article by Mackenzie at Elle in 2004. You will see that there is quite a range of different soil classifications across. Australia soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals contains organic matter the amount of organic matter that assal contains can vary largely. Organic matter is important. As this is a source of nutrients for plants it also has other functions it aids saw aggregation it also aids soil structure and it provides storage for water agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. So why is soil. So important for crop crop growth and agronomists well saul has many functions for agronomist and crop growth principally it acts as a medium for the production of crops agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. This medium allows roots to grow in it. This serves two functions. The soil can act as an anchor for the root and also an environment for the root this environment aids the absorption of water oxygen and essential nutrients the ability of the soil to aid water agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Oxygen and essential nutrients is referred to as the soil fertility. All of these components are required for plant growth and development soils also enable the medium for the symbiotic relationships agronomy journals, plant pathology journals with such organisms such as nitrogen fixing bacteria it also aids as a storage of water between rainfall event or irrigation. It is easy when learning about soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. And we’re managing the soil to focus only on the physical and the chemical components of the soil. It is easy because we can easily define these and measure them agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. It is worth noting though that the soil is a food web and a complex one at that it contains millions and millions of organisms and they can interact. The organisms includes plants decaying plants bacteria fungi insects and a whole suite of invertebrates the soil food web illustration is a summary of some of this complexity agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. And how it can interact within the soils ecosystem. There is a continued cycle between prey and predator in order to for you to fully understand some of the concepts of soil and ecosystems agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. I’d like you to watch the following YouTube video on soils and ecosystems this was produced by USDA when you are watching this video please ensure that you make notes about the different types of soil organic matter agronomy journals, plant pathology journals that are described and about hydrological functions and why they are important in these forests.

Essential elements are found in the soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. They are necessary for a plant to complete. Its growth cycle whose function cannot be replaced by other elements and that are compounds of a molecular or enzyme within the plant minerals that are derived from rocks in the soil provide many of these elements with most plant species agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. There are 17 elements that are essential for plant growth the compounds such as oxygen carbon dioxide and water are all obtained from the atmosphere plants acquire the other essential elements from the soil there are several classifications of plant nutrients but the most commonly used is that based on the content of the nutrient found in the soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. These are separated in either macro or micro nutrients macro nutrients ie compounds that are found in large scales. Include nitrogen phosphorus phosphorus and potassium. And it is these compounds agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. We often add as fertilizers to the soil. To aid our growth and development. You will learn more about this topic agronomy journals, plant pathology journals in future. Lectures another important concept to understand. Is that of the carbon and nitrogen ratio and how it relates to decomposition in your soils the carbon to nitrogen ratio is the relative amount of carbon to nitrogen agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. It influences the rate of decomposition of animal and plant material in the soil the CTN ratio varies among plant ecosystems agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Therefore if you add different conditioners such as haul soil houmous or compost or you leave young alfalfa on your fields. You will have a different carbon to nitrogen ratio which will significantly influence decomposition plants with a low c2n ratio. Such as alfalfa are nitrogen rich and they decay rapidly while plants that are high in the carbon to nitrogen decay slowly.

An example of this is sawdust. That has a 400 to 1 C to end ratio. The reason for the importance of these ratios is that the bacteria and the fungi that decay. These plants require nitrogen for growth agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. If inadequate nitrogen is available the number of microorganisms will be insufficient to decay the plant material when carbon to nitrogen ratios are more than 30 to 1 all of the available nitrogen in the soil can be used to sustain existing microbe populations therefore if you add sawdust to your soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals it can result in your crop becoming nitrogen deficient. An additional nitrogen may be required when considering adding organic material to your soils agronomy journals, plant pathology journals whether it be animal or plant waste manure hay etc. Be sure to understand and find out what the carbon to nitrogen ratio is and how that will impact on decay and therefore how it may impact on your crop nutrient requirements and your crop nutrient management agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. The fractions of organic matter have many roles. These roles roles include sequestration of nutrients that is such as carbon as carbon is a major component of the organic matter agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Organic matter is therefore an important component of the organic of the global carbon cycle agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Organic matter is a source of nutrients there it acts as both a reserve for the essential nitrogen phosphorus and boron but also nutrients are attracted to the surface of organic matter agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Nutrients may be a component of the organic matter too. Organic matter is a binding agent that joins the mineral proportions of the soil together agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. The aggregation of soil particles is important of for the soil. Tilth and aeration. These are important for successful. Plant growth and development agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Organic matter absorbs water like a sponge and it retains it for plant growth and finally organic matter can tie up toxic chemicals and pesticides that would otherwise contaminate the groundwater this is referred to as chemical sequestration in the organic matter fraction lived the humble earthworms a good population of earthworms indicates a healthy soil agronomy journals, plant pathology journals.

Earthworms are small. Animals that can improve the soil structure by contributing to physical breakup. Of the soil some soils can can contain up to 300 earthworms per meter cubed there are 7,000 species of earthworm. Across these species there are three classifications the lizard dwellers the shallow soil dwellers and the deep burrowers. They play several critical roles in good agronomic all souls agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. They shared crop residues and initiate decomposition of the organic matter by bacteria and fungi that feed on the organic matter. Their exterior is in turn consumed by the soil organize organisms. They mix soil and organic matter and they bury soil organic matter. They allow tunnel tunneling to occur within the soil profile this adds aeration and provides pathways of movement for water and plant roots agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Let us now look at the soil properties that affect plant growth and crop growth texture structure and chemistry of the soil that is such things as pH and cation exchange soil. Texture defines the soil fineness or cornice. A soil can be very fine or very coarse or somewhere in between it is determined by the type and the amount of specific soil particles. These are soil silt and clay sand and silt are principally silica while clay being the smallest compound is comprised of a mix of compounds which include silica aluminium oxygen hydrogen potassium magnesium and phosphorus. It is a chemically reactive particle and provides most nutrients for plant growth agricultural soils tend to be a mix of sand silt and clay principally the soil is composed from sand silt and clay once you know the composition or the percent of each of these components found silt and clay. You can then use this information by using a soil triangle the figure on the slide. And this you can then identify what soil type you have. For example a soil with a high clay content low sand and low silt is described with as clay however a soil with an equal amount of clay silt and sand is called a clay loam soil structure describes the clustering of soil particles into various shapes productive agricultural soils often have a granular structure in which clusters of soil.

Particles are bound together by organic matter matter and clay well aggregated granular soils. Have good aeration and tilth tilth refers to the saw having beneficial qualities related to crop growth soil structure can be defined by the volume and the arrangement of these pores in the soil. This determines concepts such as soil water movement and air flow in the profile. This effects saw friability. That is the ease of rain. Infiltration and rain runoff cultivation and growing crops damaging soil structure can be an issue that you’d like to avoid livestock can pulverize the soil. That is they can result in the destruction of large and small soil channels these channels allow the rapid air and water infiltration wet soils often result in compaction and breakdown of soil aggregates if livestock are run on them during this period binding. Organic matter is very good. At binding and breaking up. The soil structure soil structure erosion low organic matter causes collapses in wet soil conditions reduction and infiltration and increase in runoff 5/2 times 5 to 10 times more erosion when poor soil structure exists. There are a number of clues that can lead you to identification of poor soil structure look in areas that you suspect you may have a problem and compare them with a similar soil that you suspect has good structure for example before livestock were grazing reel and sheet agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Erosion is where water runs over the source surface strips away thin sheets of soil only millimeters at a time when the water collects small eroded channels form down the slope this is real erosion surface crusts reduce infiltration to water and restrict seedling. Emergence when they become dry cloudiness after a single cultivation brick light clods are formed further for cultivation is required to produce a suitable seed bed.

Some plants can be used as an indicator of bad pore structure. One such plant is the toad rush. It grows where water has pondered on the surface. Ponding is where water after a light. Rainfall accumulates it does not soak into the soil. A hard surface may be seen with poor soil structure agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. This is when the soil is dry and tests the hardness the depth of penetration of failing mattock or or with a pic can be used to test. This compare different soils poor. Infiltration may result after the first. This is when after the first struck rains after a dry spell water does not infiltrate into the soil very far and finally the presence of organic matter soils tend to be. Britta and paler in color when they do not have much organic matter when there is a large concentration of organic matter. The sores tend to be dark so what course of action can you take. If you suspect or find poor soil structure you can change your management to a permanent pasture. Plants will protect the soil from erosion and the deep roots from the pasture will help the pores and channels needed to improve. Infiltration and plants will naturally increase the soil organic matter manage the pasture well however ensure that you use water nutrients and light grazing wherever possible agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. The application of the compound gypsum can be used to improve your structure. If you apply gypsum. It is best to tackle slacking. And dispersion of your soils the rate of gypsum that it tends to be recommended is 2.5 tons per hectare gypsum works agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. By supplying calcium which disposes the sodium from the clog the clay surface it is advisable to test for your cat and exchange cation levels and this can indicate your application rate we will also look at soil. Chemistry soles have many chemical properties that are important for plant crop growth and development. The three that. We’re going to concentrate in. This lecture are cation exchange capacity pH and salinity small crystalline clay particles and organic matter that exists in the soil are chemically active and usually have a negative charge.

The negatively charged surface of these particles enables them to attract positively charged particles. If you are able to link to the following website you will see a demonstration of the chain exchanges of these charges. These images are of a gonner conceptual nature the amount of exchangeable cation a soil can sustain is called – the cation exchange capacity where this is relevant relevant for you as an agronomist. Is that the higher. This cation exchange capacity is the more able the soil is to hold nutrients and is therefore fertile the cation exchange capacity for the soil particles. Clay is 13 million quiver lands per hundred grams for sand. It is nine milli equivalents per hundred gram and houmous has a high level of 200 milli equivalents per hundred grams from these three components. This shows you that. Adding houmous to the soil will increase your cation exchange capacity. There is a range of exchangeable cations found in in the soil and some are listed on the slide. Their ability to attract varies. Also that is. Aluminium is very attracted or strongly associated with the soil whereas sodium is less so knowledge of your cation exchange capacity in your soils will enable you to manage your soil environment correctly agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. This is particularly important if you are going to add supplements to the soil and it is also important in your nutrient management of your soils. Acidity is the chemical condition of the soil and is measured by the pH scale the pH scale starts at one this low number represents a strongly environments and it ends at 12. The high number of 12 represents a strongly alkaline environment acidic soils have a pH of 4.5 or below this is when the pH is measured in the soil solute calcium chloride soil pH can also be measured in water. And you need to be mindful of how it is measured in the interpretation of that. PH acidity and understanding.

Your acidity is important because it can reduce yields and also interfere with nutrient availability and nutrient uptake. Australian soils have a tendency to be slightly acidic or acidic. There are several consequences of acidic soils it can prevent legumes from. Nadja lating it results. In a reduction of recycling of your nutrients by beneficial soil microorganisms. It can increase toxicity to your plants by two methods. One is the release of aluminium from the soil and two is the release of high magnesium levels high magnesium levels are typically seen in hot dry poorly drained acidic soils if you have low. PH you can have a decline in nutrient availability available. Aluminium and iron may tie up valuable phosphorus for example or it can cause molybdenum deficiency. There are a range of effects of acidic soils different crop and pastures are affected differently by different aspects of soil salinity soil salinity can affect the top 10 centimeters. And this is it tends to be you see the problem. However the problem may occur at the subsoil level as well subsoil. Acidity is costly and very difficult to adjust for the diagram on your slide describes the influence of pH on soft fertility and nutrient availability agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. If you start by looking at this figure at the pH seven which is regarded as optimal you will see after studying this slide that all of the nutrients can be taken up if however your pH is above seven. It is regarded as alkaline alkaline. Toxicity can occur the more the alkaline. The sold the more toxicity results. If you have alkaline soils you can get deficiencies of iron manganese zinc copper and boron you will tend to see an excess of sodium which can be toxic to the plants if you reduce your pH and you are entering acidic soils as your number of as your pH reduces your toxicity increases. If you have acidic soils you can have deficiencies in magnesium calcium potassium phosphorus and molybdenum. You may also see an excess of aluminium manganese and iron this demonstrates the importance of agronomist to understand your soils add your nutrients to your crop you could at worst be wasting your time if you get your nutrients soil interactions incorrectly.

You could also result in a significant loss of yield nutrient deficiency and toxicity to your plants. So what are the signs of soils that are acidic. You tend to get uneven pasture or crop growth. Pay attention to acid sensitive plants and you may see the invasion of weeds that are acid tolerant acidity across a field tends to vary significantly agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. This may match your uneven pasture variation you may see poor nodulation of legumes stunted root growth and increase in root disease may also occur if you find that you are having difficulty in certain crops. Such as loosen and medic’s this may suggest soil acidity problems and finally you may see the formation of organic mats on the saw surface as a result of the loss of biological activity. So what is the action that you should undertake well if you suspect soil. PH issues the first thing to do is to conduct soil pH tests an aluminium level tests. Remember that soil acidity varies greatly due to rain and temperature over the season. So when you are conducting your soil samples not only should you take a close note of the climate and conditions when you take the samples but also that you can compare these conditions at similar times ensure that you understand the difference between measuring pH in water versus measuring pH in calcium chloride. It is often thought that the measurement of pH in calcium chloride is more accurate and more meaningful for agronomists. 20 or more samples should be collected from a paddock due to the large variation seen in in acidity. There are a number of actions that you can take. If you suspect acidic soils the most common is the addition of lime a heavy application may be as high as six tons per hectare. If you have a seriously acidic problem. The line needs to be spread evenly over the affected areas and ideally incorporated into the soil.

This is where managing subsoil acidity can become very tricky the lime works by changing the pH and neutralizing the surface as a rule of thumb. The guide of lime to add is two tons per hectare for every one. PH change you wish to undertake ensure that you measure your pH after your lime application agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. The lime application may depend on the soil type as clay loam soils tend to need more applications than sand soils. It is best that you add your line at one ton per hectare every eight weeks following the initial application. Continue this for a fall of the rest of the season you can also look at the method developed by G Fenton in 1993 about strict strict application of lime. This is where a strip of lime is applied on the field and you monitor the performance of the plants over time to see if this lime has made meaningful differences in your plant growth and development agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Another action that you can consider is to do nothing. This is not advisable however because plant yields will continue to decline agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. Even if you do not see this initially another action could be considered is to grow more tolerant species if you do this alone without trying to adjust for the pH this is probably only a short-term fix as your pH or your sores will become more acidic and finally the fourth action that you can consider is to change your farming system if you reduce the intensity of your cropping for example and you lightly graze your paddocks you may increase your acidity agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. There’s been experiments where lightly grazed undeveloped pasture in acidic soils only needs rates of lime application and little as not 0.5 tons per hectare every 10 years intensive production systems of high crop yields such as hay cutting areas and productive pastures need about three tonnes per hectare every 10 years you should also consider better nitrogen magnet management better soil moisture management and an increase agronomy journals, plant pathology journals.

Where possible of perennial pastures and deep rooted plants. If you have acidic problems soil salinity is also called fail and so deck and saline so deck and these terms are used interchangeably salinity occurs due to the accumulation of salts such as sodium calcium ammonia and magnesium that dissolve in water as the water table moves. So does the salts. These salts form a chemical reaction between acid and a base most. Sall salts are sulfurs are so full and the chloride CL – salinity tends to be associated in hot dry environments due to the higher evaporation of water from the soil surface there are two types of salinity dryland and irrigation salinity reduces yields because salts cause plant dehydration. Now there are several causes of salinity. These can be as simple as land clearing or some traditional farming practices using clover and pasture can result in high salinity levels. How you manage the water is usually the most common form of salinity. If you raise the water table you can release salts which can then lock/unlock the problem to other areas salts are drawn down by what we call capillary action to the surface you the image on the slide was taken from the Mali region in Australia by the Department of Primary Industries. It illustrates the effects of salinity. It is toxic to plants. Salinity may cause water logging issues when water is in the soil. It is not used. Deep drainage to the water table increases native trees have been found to be very effective at using this waste water and removing them reduces the capacity and leads to salinity issues and your crops and pastures tend to be shallow rooted in nature agronomy journals, plant pathology journals. And they do not use deep water this also leading to salinity over grazing can reduce leaf area and lowers plant water. Use sowing late can also cause or or make salinity problems worse as if the paddock is not using the water. In the autumn. This can again add to the problem disease. An inadequate fertiliser or any factor that limits plant growth can also impact on salinity.

Where you allow long fallow. You aim to store water and often. The soil is full before the crop is sown additional. Rain recharges the groundwater adding to your salinity problems leaking dams are an obvious one but little thought about and finally poor surface drainage water laying on the land powers plant growth and water. Use this then leaks into the water table. If it’s not used up so what can you do if you suspect salinity problems. Well the first thing to note it tends to be a whole farm or catchment approach. A farm plan is highly recommended and the Department of Primary Industries can assist you with such a plan. Ideally you aim to use water more efficiently. You can do this by planting native trees and shower strap shops changing your cropping practices to perennial pastures. That are well-managed. I wore to use cropping early sowing varieties and avoid disease of these varieties. You need to consider good crop rotations and allow a longer pasture phase by using perennials and avoid long fallows surface drainage should be repaired and use ground water irrigation for stock for example. I’d like to bring this lecture to a close by looking at erosion and conservation of your soils erosion is the accelerated loss of soil through the action of wind or water management techniques such as conservation tillage and growing permanent vegetation to cover your soil can minimize this erosion a useful tool in conserving soils and preventing erosion is being able to estimate ground cover and then manage accordingly note that ground cover does not include bare or loose soil or clay pans or scales however ground cover does include live plants sticks and logs litter and dead plant material rocks and stones dung soil crusts able to withstand a hoof impact and plants such as lichens this slide shows two images obtained from dpi one on the left-hand side demonstrates 20 percent ground cover estimation while the one on the right-hand side shows 80% to avoid soil erosion.

You should aim for a 70% or more cover on your soils let us review what we have learned in. Well we’ve understood that souls play a role in the commercial growing of plants but this role is actually quite complicated that this role involves us understanding about something called soil structure s or texture and salt chemical properties. We’ve importantly understood that the soil just is a physical matter that it’s actually huge biological components that is there is ecosystems that are made up millions and millions of components that can either aid crop growth or they can stunt it will reduce it depending on the complex roles. It is my belief that science is just beginning to understand the complexity of soils and there over the next five to twenty years with our new technologies. We will begin to have a better understanding in future years. You may concentrate more on the managing of your source than the actual managing of your crops. But that’s still up for some debate. We’ve also presented some information that links erosion and ground cover. And how this is also important in soils and how you should manage this in an ideal situation. Thank you very much for listening to this lecture. This brings us to the end of an introductions of soils and agronomy journals, plant pathology journals.

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