Welcome to this video on writing the literature review for her research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal proposal which is part of our series on writing the research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal proposal. Let’s begin by looking at the purpose of this literature. Review section in the research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal proposal there are two purposes. One is to situate your research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal within the broader literature and to describe what is not known and known about your problem and the other is to establish the gap that in the literature that your research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal will full. This provides the academic rationale for your research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal. So what goes into the literature review. I’m going to describe it in paragraphs because disciplines vary and you may not need all these components and you may also vary the order so generally you would have an opening paragraph where you orient the reader to the topic and you establish why it’s important or interesting and you might refer back to your problem or purpose at that points. You might also have paragraphs that describe the core concepts being used they might include a conceptual evolution and how concepts have developed or changed or. What the debates are. You might also have paragraphs that talk about how concepts are defined not in glossary terms but in terms of quantitation and debates. You will also have paragraphs that describe and analyze the literature and what. I’m suggesting here is that you might in one paragraph describe and analyze or you might have paragraphs that describe and then later paragraphs that analyze so descriptive paragraphs would describe what the methodologies were what the results were and and what debates exist by analyzing what you do. Is you group the literature either into themes or you look at the literature chronologically over time to see how things have changed so that you can compare later literature to earlier literature. You could look at the literature coming out of different countries. Or you could find some other mechanism for grouping the literature so literature review sections in the research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal proposal also contain synthesis so you would have a paragraph or two that pulls together the themes that you outlined or the chronology or the contextual analysis of the literature so the synthesis paragraphs pull things together.
And then you would have a concluding paragraph where you make your key argument again. So the literature review really works for you because it helps you to situate your study in the literature writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal and identify a knowledge gap. It helps you to make decisions around your concepts and which concepts you’ll use. It helps you to work out your theoretical framework. If there is relevance you might set up the data analysis in the literature review writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal. And you may not do it in too much detail in the proposal but it will give you an idea of this the same thing for the methodology. So really what you’re doing here is you’re identifying bodies of literature and you’re making an arguments of how they relate to your study and you’ll also show counter arguments writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal because there provides a scholarly perspective. Where you show that you know debates other than your perspective and if you are doing any of these things then address them separately read specifically on each one and right up there section on its own so just to emphasize what. I’m saying here. Is their literature writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal. Reviews really contain description and analysis. So people often think that you don’t need description in a literature review but your reader can’t understand your analysis if you don’t provide some information then the more you know of the literature the more confident you’ll be about your project and about writing this section and another really key. Point is that academic knowledge writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal is contested and debated not everyone agrees and the literature review is where you show not only the research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal you favor but other perspectives. And you show that you understand this contest. Asia so let’s have a look at citations now because they are such an important part of any literature. Review academics use citations to persuade to present an argument to convince readers to accept.
They work so through. Referencing writers connect to other academics and texts and they show particular perspectives and by drawing on authorities. That’s how you as a writer develop credibility so citations are not just to show where the material has come from. They used quite strategically in literature reviews so for example if we say if you say. Jones argues you for grounding the author and you’re saying to the reader this author is important. Carry some weight. And that’s why. I’m using that author. Another example would be when we group citations for example. If you if you say if you list a number of citations within a bracket this shows breadth of reading and synthesis to your reader and you’re also suggesting that none of those are individually important enough in this case to cite on their own or to lead the sentence with a citation but group citations position the writer as knowledgeable and it shows evidence of synthesis of the writer being able to synthesis the literature synthesize the literature so research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal that I’ve conducted shows that graduate students often cite from the abstract of articles or the first few sentences and and while there’s nothing wrong with this readers often want to know the overall message of the whole article you know the research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal results and their key conclusions so what I want to show you. Here is a way of understanding how you can use citations these are Harris’s moves and they also give you a language to talk about how you’re using citations so Harris has four moves and moves. Our rhetorical patterns that are often found in texts and his four moves are coming to terms forwarding countering and taking an approach and each of these shows. You how you can use citations differently now. Coming to terms is the most commonly used a way we use citations and this is transferring from the source document into our document and in Harris’s terms what he’s saying is that we use that to come to terms with that source document.
But really what we’re doing. There is writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal summarizing paraphrasing quoting and writing descriptions forward in his way. We use that information in some way. So we either repurpose it or do something with it. So an example would be using an author as an authority to promote an argument. That would be forward in. Countering is thinking differently about a text or an author so counter-arguments don’t need to be in direct opposition to a perspective. They can add a perspective. Add to a potatoe perspective added new ones perhaps take it in a new direction and even just showing their different authors have different approaches is a good example of countering. The final move is taking an approach and this is a little bit more difficult and this is where you use the source author as a stepping stone to a new perspective so it could be a different perspective from what was intended by the author or the writer could apply the original work in an innovative way but to take an approach. You really need to know the literature really well understand what that author is trying to say and have a good sense of the debates in the field so what. I’m saying is that even if you use the first three moves you’ll be able to see that you are moving from description to analysis to some kind of critical work. Let’s have a quick look at reading and note-taking for this literature review section of the proposal. They are obviously different ways to do searching but these are two that. I use fairly often a systematic search. Where you set up the parameters for the search a time period say 10 years you might say you know. I’m only going to look at Canadian literature or I’ll look at these three key journals in the field you might identify keywords based on your research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal problem and core concepts and then you use those keywords to search within the parameters that you’ve set up the other search is a focused search where you begin with a key article or an author and then you search those references.
I also have two reading strategies I use the Blitz method where I collect abstracts and as I collect the abstracts. I’m only reading the abstracts at this point. I’ll group them into things that I could use counter-arguments something that could help me. Explain the theoretical base of this issue. Perhaps a good case study of it and then. I’ll identify which articles I need to read in much more detail and then I’ll move into an in-depth reading phase so I’ve put some notes in here on our note-taking for you if you want to read this in more detail pause the video and have a look at it but really the emphasis on this on your note-taking for this literature review would be to say. In what way does this article or this chapter. Or this book relate to my research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal how does it help me move my argument forward so that I understand counter-arguments explain a theoretical base. So how does this paper impact on my research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal so. I’ve included some writing. Prompts here for you to get going these could be free. Writes for you again. Pause the video and have a look at them in more detail and and these can be short. Free writes that you do quickly or you can do them in more depth but they are stepping stones to you. Write this chapter sorry the section. So let’s have a look at how we actually write the section and again. I’m suggesting you break it up into different stages so in the prewriting stage you’ll do searching reading you’ll write notes to yourself. You might do critical assessments of articles you would use concept maps or free writes to help your thinking and to organize. And you’d write memos to yourself so you doing the thinking the planning the working then when it comes to writing you just rights so you’re writing a draft. It’s for your eyes. Only you can have as many mistakes and there as you want. Don’t worry about that now. Don’t go back to sources use your notes and just write the draft and then in the revision phase you go back to your sources fill in gaps delete do reverse outlining edit for structure edit for language crafter section and you might have to do this process a couple of times in your in your writing process.
Thank you for watching this video on writing the literature review of a research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal proposal which is part of our rice in a research writing of research proposal, writing a research proposal proposal series you.
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