It’s very important to design your research types of research in education to gather the correct information. A strong understanding of the most common types of research types of research in education studies should assist you as you review the research types of research in education of others as well as helping you as you design your own research. Hopefully this is a bit of review for you. This video will focus on three different types of research types of research in education studies. The one shot or cross-sectional study types of research in education trend or time series study types of research in education and longitudinal studies. The first type of research types of research in education study types of research in education is the most common called the one shot or cross-sectional study types of research in education. This study types of research in education is conducted once meaning. You have one shot at getting the data. Think of a camera. You have one chance one shot at getting the right picture. It is descriptive in nature. Because you are describing the population on the basis of one study types of research in education to understand the cross-sectional part of the name. Assume you are slicing up some kiwi fruit. You take one of the many slices a cross-section of the fruit and examine that in detail. Now that slice may differ from the one before it and the one after it. But you just have that one slice to examine and draw conclusions from this type of study types of research in education examines data that were collected across a whole population to provide a snapshot of that population at a single point in time essentially you are looking at a thin cross section of the population knowing that if you collected data at another time you might find some differences. Say you were a small business and want to know what your customers are like and what they value. You may conduct a single study types of research in education asking demographic and attitudinal questions this would be a one-shot or cross-sectional study types of research in education. But you might be interested in knowing if your customer demographics have changed over time for that you need to use a trend. Research types of research in education study types of research in education sometimes called a time series. This type of study types of research in education measures the same items over time but with a different sample of the population. Each time you are looking for a pattern or a trend in the data often to see if you can predict future events.
Say you’re cooking spaghetti for a large crowd of people a family reunion. Perhaps you have to make a huge amount of sauce and you need to cook it in multiple pots if you want to know what the flavoring is right you. Sam from one pot then wait a while and then sample from another pot. Then wait a while and then sample again and so on you are going to the same source the spaghetti sauce using the same testing technique and testing for the same criteria spiciness texture etc. But you are getting a different sample each time at the same time. You are likely predicting what will happen next. And when all that lovely spaghetti sauce will finally be done and the party can begin in opinion research. You’re asking the same questions each time but of different people your goal is to determine. What if any changes have occurred between the first time you ask the questions and the second time one type of trend analysis used in market research types of research in education is a pretest. Post-test design. Let’s say that you are interested in perceptions of mental health issues and in particular if exposure to a public education campaign might influence those perceptions. You could set up a study types of research in education like this. Select a sample of the population and conduct a survey asking a variety of questions in this example. We’re assuming for questions and the sub 1 means that these questions were asked during time one or the first time in the series this would be the pretest or the baseline survey. It is the starting point that future research types of research in education will be compared to then the campaign occurs or in scientific terms the stimulus or the treatment is introduced after the campaign. We then conduct the survey again selecting another sample of the population different people than who were interviewed the first time we ask them the same questions we asked in the first survey and I’m designating them sub 2 to identify these as coming from the second time in the series the post-test we can then compare the results from the pretest with the results from the post test to see what if any changes have occurred.
Now being the astute researcher you are. You’ve probably realized that other stimuli other than the campaign might have influenced the results in 2014 for example the suicide of comedian. Robin Williams brought the issue of mental health to the forefront any anti-stigma campaign run during that time period would have a difficult time being that the campaign by itself was responsible for a change in perceptions and attitudes. That’s why in most scientific research types of research in education particularly in medicine. The pretest post-test survey is usually conducted using an experimental design where you use the same respondents. Half of whom are exposed to the stimulus or the treatment the experimental group and half who are not the control group allowing you to compare the differences between the pretest or observation one and the post-test or observation to and between the post test results of the experimental group those exposed to the stimulus and the control group those not exposed to the stimulus. This experimental design though is not really a trend study types of research in education because we are using the same set of respondents remember that the trend study types of research in education uses a different set of respondents for each time but it is a nice way to transition to the longitudinal. Study types of research in education when you go back to the same person or the same group of respondents. You are conducting a longitudinal study types of research in education often involving more than two time series just as a trend. Study types of research in education the longitudinal study types of research in education is used to measure changes but you are gathering data from the same person every time there are three different types of longitudinal studies. The first is probably the easiest to understand a panel study types of research in education which involves selecting your sample to get a cross-section of individuals different ages sexes geographic location etc. Just as in the trend study types of research in education you conduct a baseline or pretest introduced a stimulus and then go back to the same group of people to conduct the post-test or the second measurement in the series a word about the stimulus it might be a campaign a drug trial etc or it could just be time things change over time.
The second type of longitudinal study types of research in education is a cohort dictionary.com defines a cohort as a group of persons sharing a particular statistical or demographic characteristic a group of people who were born during a specific time period would form a birth cohort. Those who were exposed to a particular campaign could be a cohort in our previous example about the experimental design fine involving an experimental and control group. Those who were exposed to the stimulus or treatment would be one cohort while those who were not would be a second cohort. CBS sunday morning. Profiled michael apt. EDS work a series of documentary films titled the up series where he followed 14 british boys and girls from childhood to middle age starting at age 7 which is why it’s sometimes called the 7up series. He filmed his interviews with them and then seven years later interviewed and filmed them again than seven years later. And so on as of now there have been eight films covering a timespan of 49 years. This type of research types of research in education is an example of a cohort. Study types of research in education you may be asking what the difference is between a panel study types of research in education and a cohort study types of research in education. It’s a subtle but important difference. A panel study types of research in education uses a representative sample. Remember that you are sampling. A cross-section of individuals while the cohort study types of research in education uses a sample with predetermined common characteristics for example a group of graduates. That are the same age from different colleges. With the same degree they would make up a cohort and you could study types of research in education them every five years to see how they’ve progressed. A retrospective study types of research in education is a longitudinal. Study types of research in education that looks back in time. In retrospect for instance a researcher may look up the medical records of previous years to look for a trend again. You’re following the same group of individuals only this time instead of looking forward.
You’re looking backwards. You will rarely find a retrospective study types of research in education conducted for opinion research types of research in education now. It may be used to analyze voting behaviors but this type of studies tends to be limited to medical research. Assuming you’re taking my research types of research in education methods course where you have one semester to design and implement a research types of research in education project. Which type of study types of research in education do you think we would be doing. Yes time prohibits conducting more than one survey in a short semester so we will be conducting a one-shot survey processing time. What are the three different types of research types of research in education studies what type of study types of research in education with the. US census be as the US. Census has conducted every year to measure the demographics of the population. Going back to the exact same people who were surveyed previously with the same set of questions as well as adding in anybody else who shows up it would be considered a longitudinal survey specifically a panel survey. And how would you design a pretest. Post-test study types of research in education here. We focused on only the major types of research types of research in education studies. There are more but now as you read through research types of research in education studies in your literature review and prepare your own study types of research in education. You should have a better understanding of the possibilities that await you.
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