Hi i’m aisha you are watching educational hub and today we will talk about what is sampling research? When you conduct research what is sampling research about a group of people it’s rarely possible to collect data from every person in that group instead you select a sample what is sampling researchthe sample what is sampling researchis the group of individuals who will actually participate in the research what is sampling research there are two types of sampling methods probability sampling it involves random selection allowing you to make strong statistical inferences about the whole group non-probability sampling it involves non-random selection based and convenience or other criteria allowing you to easily collect data so today we discuss and briefly introduction of sampling methods types and techniques with examples let’s start first we need to understand what is sampling a sample what is sampling researchis a subset of individuals from a larger population sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research what is sampling research for example if you are researching the opinions of students in your university you could survey a sample what is sampling researchof 100 students in statistics sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population why are samples used in research what is sampling research samples are used to make inferences about populations samples are easier to collect data from because they are practical cost-effective convenient and manageable first you need to understand the difference between a population and a sample what is sampling research the population is the entire group that you want to draw conclusions about the sample what is sampling researchis the specific group of individuals that you will collect data from it is important to carefully define your target population according to the purpose and practicalities of your project the population can be defined in terms of geographical location age income and many other characteristics it can be very broad or quite narrow maybe you want to make inferences about the whole adult population of your country maybe your research what is sampling research focuses on customers of a certain company patients with a specific health condition or students in a single school sampling frame the sampling frame is the actual list of individuals that the sample what is sampling research will be drawn from ideally it should include the entire target population and nobody who is not part of that population for example you are doing research what is sampling research on working conditions at company x your population is all 1000 employees of the company your sampling frame is the company’s hr database which lists the names and contact details of every employee sample what is sampling researchsize the number of individuals you should include in your sample what is sampling researchdepends on various factors including the size and variability of the population and your research what is sampling research design there are different sample what is sampling researchsize calculators and formulas depending on what you want to achieve with statistical analysis probability sampling methods what is probability sampling probability sampling means that every member of the target population has a known chance of being included in the sample what is sampling researchthere are four main types of probability sample what is sampling research1.
Simple random sampling in a simple random sample what is sampling researchevery member of the population has an equal chance of being selected your sampling frame should include the whole population for example you want to select a simple random sample what is sampling researchof 100 employees of company x you assign a number to every employee in the company database from 1 to 1 000 and use a random number generator to select 100 numbers 2. systematic sampling systematic sampling is similar to simple random sampling but it is usually slightly easier to conduct every member of the population is listed with a number but instead of randomly generating numbers individuals are chosen at regular intervals for example all employees of the company are listed in alphabetical order from the first 10 numbers you randomly select a starting point number six from number six onwards every 10th person on the list is selected 6 16 26 36 and so on and you end up with a sample what is sampling researchof 100 people 3 stratified sampling stratified sampling involves dividing the population into subpopulations that may differ in important ways it allows you draw more precise conclusions by ensuring that every subgroup is properly represented in the sample what is sampling research for example the company has 800 female employees and 200 male employees you want to ensure that the sample what is sampling researchreflects the gender balance of the company so you sort the population into two strata based and gender then you use random sampling on each group selecting 80 women and 20 men which gives you a representative sample what is sampling researchof 100 people 4.
Cluster sampling cluster sampling also involves dividing the population into subgroups but each subgroup should have similar characteristics to the whole sample what is sampling research instead of sampling individuals from each subgroup you randomly select entire subgroups for example the company has offices in 10 cities across the country all with roughly the same number of employees in similar roles you don’t have the capacity to travel to every office to collect your data so you use random sampling to select three offices these are your clusters non-probability sampling methods what is non-probability sampling in non-probability sampling the sample what is sampling researchis selected based on non-random criteria and not every member of the population has a chance of being included non-probability sampling techniques are often used in exploratory and qualitative research what is sampling research in these types of research what is sampling research the aim is not to test a hypothesis about a broad population but to develop an initial understanding of a small or under-researched population common non-probability sampling methods include 1. convenience sampling a convenience sample what is sampling research simply includes the individuals who happen to be most accessible to the researcher this is an easy and inexpensive way to gather initial data but there is no way to tell if the sample what is sampling researchis representative of the population so it can’t produce generalizable results for example you are researching opinions about student support services in your university so after each of your classes you ask your fellow students to complete a survey on the topic this is a convenient way to gather data but as you only surveyed students taking the same classes as you at the same level the sample what is sampling research is not representative of all the students at your university 2.
Voluntary response sampling similar to a convenience sample what is sampling research a voluntary response sample what is sampling researchis mainly based on ease of access instead of the researcher choosing participants and directly contacting them people volunteer themselves for example by responding to a public online survey for example you send out the survey to all students at your university and a lot of students decide to complete it this can certainly give you some insight into the topic but the people who responded are more likely to be those who have strong opinions about the student support services so you can’t be sure that their opinions are representative of all students 3. purposive sampling this type of sampling also known as judgment sampling involves the researcher using their expertise to select a sample what is sampling researchthat is most useful to the purposes of the research what is sampling research it is often used in qualitative research what is sampling research where the researcher wants to gain detailed knowledge about a specific phenomenon rather than make statistical inferences or where the population is very small and specific an effective purpose of sample what is sampling researchmust have clear criteria and rationale for inclusion for example you want to know more about the opinions and experiences of disabled students at your university so you purposefully select a number of students with different support needs in order to gather a varied range of data on their experiences with student services 4. snowball sampling if the population is hard to access snowball sampling can be used to.
Recruit participants via other participants the number of people you have access to snowballs as you get in contact with more people for example you are researching experiences of homelessness in your city since there is no list of all homeless people in the city probability sampling isn’t possible you meet one person who agrees to participate in the research what is sampling research and she puts you in contact with other homeless people that she knows in the area thank you for watching i hope you can easily understand that what is sampling methods and types like share and subscribe my channel for more informative videos about research.
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