Global Research Letters

What is a Journal?

Hello and welcome to the association of learned and professional society publishers. First careers hub videos today. I’m going to be talking to you about journals meaning in hindi  . And hopefully share some of my experience in scholarly publishing to help you understand the basics of scholarly publishing in this first of a new series of short videos. We’ll be looking at. What’s something that we all will be working on or have heard about but perhaps never really looked at the history or development of thing in detail and that’s the journal so firstly. What is the journal well to go really down to basics. The word is originally from the latin diernos. Meaning daily and it identifies something that’s been done on a regular basis or something that’s done periodically and sometimes you’ll hear journals meaning in hindi   also known as periodicals. They’ve been around for quite a long time. And over the years the name journal has stuck and comes to mean a host of different um publications now whilst the original word was in latin the the use of this word actually started in france in the 15th century. And if you think about some a journal being something like a diary where people um wanted to share information wanted to record what was going on you can start to see why the word journal was first used now journals meaning in hindi  . Haven’t actually changed that very much. In over the centuries the very first journals meaning in hindi   were published in and actually the two first journals meaning in hindi   were published at the same time a french journal called the journal discover and an english journal the philosophical transactions of the royal society. Now when you actually look at the original publications. They’re very similar to what we know. Today they had a short introduction which is similar to the abstracts that we now see in every article they included the basics of of scientific repulsage they included methodologies results and also over time they developed references to other works that had been done before so really the journals meaning in hindi   that we first saw in the 17th century.

Didn’t change a huge amount all the way up really until the 1990s. Now i use this quote because this is really key to the development of journals meaning in hindi   over the years so sir isaac newton was the person who said that the research was like standing on the shoulders of giants in other words journals meaning in hindi  . Were really important. Because they were a record of experiments and research that had gone on before and current scholars were able to use that research in order to create new knowledge. So this really important idea carries on right up to this day and this really underpins. The whole idea of scholarly publishing um in total so this is one reason why journals meaning in hindi   are still relevant. Um and what we see is that the standing on the shoulders of giants represents a kind of life cycle and despite the fact that journals meaning in hindi   have evolved quite considerably particularly in recent years that research life cycle still remains people do their research. They submit that research in article form to journals meaning in hindi  . Usually those articles are evaluated by editors they go through a peer review service where they’re judged by their peers and when they’re accepted they’re produced and published online still in hard copy and they’re then accessible for other researchers to then use as part of their research and we see that the life cycle carries on. Now all that’s happened with the advent of of the internet in recent years. Is that this kind of sharing and accel. Accessibility has become much easier. But it’s also started to shape and develop and evolve journals meaning in hindi   in a slightly different way what we’re seeing now is that since journal started to move online in the 1990s accessibility in the showing of knowledge has improved but it’s also represented a challenge to the journal before 1990 journals meaning in hindi   were typically distributed in hard copy and for the in payment of a subscription so university libraries and other libraries would pay the publisher to have their art and their journals meaning in hindi   delivered on a regular basis periodically.

So what’s happened. Is that with. The advent of the internet has also enabled the advent of open access where the author pays for the article to be distributed online. And this is a much cheaper way of doing things usually and has opened up many many more journals meaning in hindi   and different models of publications so where beforehand journals meaning in hindi   were paid for on a subscription basis and disseminated in hard copies that still happens but we now also have open access where journals meaning in hindi   are put online and can be distributed very much more quickly to anybody who has an internet connection and so this is then started to develop different accessibility models. Now what’s also happened with. The advent of the internet is that it also removed barriers to entry so the numbers of journals meaning in hindi   in the last few decades has absolutely exploded. And it’s estimated that around world war ii there were only maybe one or two thousand journals meaning in hindi   in total nowadays. It’s actually very difficult to put a figure on that but there’s probably at least a hundred thousand journals meaning in hindi   that are either currently in use or are certainly accessible and even if they’re not currently being published so the number of journals meaning in hindi   has absolutely exploded. And what’s also happened. Is that what we’ve seen is that rather than journals meaning in hindi  . Be the sole container of article research. We’ve seen article level developments in other words. Universities now have their repositories where the authors the researchers at that university they can place their articles in a repository and they’ll be openly accessible not just to people in the university but to anybody there are publishing platforms that have developed where rather than having journals meaning in hindi   on the platform. They just have the articles and the articles may well be curated and placed together in themes or something but they’re not curated by an editor. Um like we’ve traditionally seen with journals meaning in hindi  . Um metrics have also evolved so rather than judging whether a journal or not is good judging by its metrics.

How often it’s been cited etc. You’re now able to look at that at an article level. So what we can see is that the advent of the internet has weakened the primacy of the academic journal. Let’s not say it’s not still important. It still is the primary use of disseminating research globally. But it’s not as powerful. It’s certainly not the only option that was available just 30 years ago so in summary. What we’ve seen is that the journals meaning in hindi   have developed over the last 350 years and if you’re looking for a simple snappy definition for what a journal is it could be defined as an edited collection of academic research articles that are published periodically whilst they’ve been around for a long time. Real changes have happened in the last 30 years. Essentially since the advent of the internet in the 1990s and whilst journals meaning in hindi   are still used by researchers to report their findings and share their results they still are preeminent in the way that they distribute those research and share research. But they’re not the only option now and article-based publishing has become much more common. So thank you for listening. That was our first of our careers hub courses the second one and i hope you join me for that is what is scholarly publishing. Thank you very much.

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