What is a sampling in research, sample in research- Understanding the sampling process sampling process. Now the first step in the sampling process is that you have to define your population you have to identify from. Where are you going to select your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research . What is your target population. Now in my case let’s say if i’m interested in assessing it projects and for that purpose i am defining my population as i t project managers in islamabad who have done government projects. And let’s say there are 1000 project managers now. This is my population from which i will draw my sample. The second thing that you need to do is you have to define your sampling frame what is a sampling in research, sample in research . So in this case my sampling frame is government project lists the projects that has been done for the government and that will bear the name of project managers and their contact details so i can contact them if i want to. So what will be my sampling design what is a sampling in research, sample in research after i have defined my population and i’ve got my sampling frame. Let’s say i want to select 300 project managers from the list of 1000 so i can have a probability sampling design and i can have a non-probability sampling design. The next step. Is you have to determine your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size. We can summarize the factors that can affect your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size. And what are those factors. Those factors are what is your research objective. What is the precision that you desire. The confidence interval the acceptable risk in predicting that level of precision. That is your confidence level. The amount of variability in the population itself and the cost and the time constraints. Let’s say i’m short of cash and i’ve got very limited time then again. You cannot have a large sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size. And in some cases the population size itself matters as well. Let’s say you’ve got a very small population size but again these are the considerations of our sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size. What should be my actual sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size now. According to roscoe in the book by uma sakran research methods for business students a skill building approach. They mentioned that a sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size over 200 and less than 500 is mostly suitable for perception based studies.
Similarly there is a 10 rule as well number of indicators multiply by 10 or in other cases you can use the table for sampling as well mentioned in the same book research methods for business students a skill building approach or otherwise. You can use g power analysis as well to calculate your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size. Normally a sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research over 200 300 is good enough for your studies that are survey based or questionnaire based now how do you execute your sampling design probability sampling. Let’s say you want to choose probability sampling. So what choices do you have. Now when elements in the population have known non-zero chance of being chosen as subjects in the sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research so a unit in the population is your element. A unit in the sample. Is your subject now when we want to make sure that the elements in the population have a known and non-zero chance we have to go for probability sampling design and in probability sampling design. We can either have simple random sampling or restricted that is complex probability sampling. Now what is unrestricted or simple random sampling now. How is it done simple random sampling. Let’s say i’ve got these 1000 project managers and i want to select 300 out of them through simple random sampling now for that purpose. The first and foremost is that i should have a complete sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research frame that is i should have a complete list of the people or the project managers. Now let’s say let’s assume i’ve got that list in excel format now. I need to select 300 people from that list. How do i do it so i need random numbers for that. So how do i get the random numbers in order to get the random numbers. I’m going to use a random number generator. This is the website. Random.org integers let’s say i want to generate 300 random numbers and they should be between 1 to 1000. And let’s say let’s get this format. Let’s get numbers. So i’ve got my list in excel and here are the numbers that i will select from my excel sheet.
These numbers are randomly generated. Let’s assume i’ve got my excel sheet here and let’s say these are my project managers up until 1000. So which one will i select. I’ve already got my numbers here so i will select 9 44 45 104 824 870. Whatever the numbers are from that excel sheet so this is how you do simple random sampling moving on now. Let’s say we had restricted or complex probability sampling the systematic sampling design involves drawing every nth element in the population. Now let’s assume i want to do probability sampling. I want to associate a known non-zero chance with every element in the population to be selected as subject in the sample. But i do not have the complete sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research frame. I do not have the complete details of every single element in the population but i still want probability sampling. Let’s say i’m conducting a study in my university. Obviously the details of the students is classified. It’s it’s something that is very sensitive so the university won’t give me the details of every single student but i still want to do probability sampling but they have told me that they’ve got 1 000 students in the university and i want to draw a sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research of 200 students. So what i’ll do is. I’ll divide my population with my sample. And this gives me the number five. This shows that i will select or i will interview every fifth person that walks into the campus. Now obviously not everyone will respond. So what i’ll do is instead of going for the fifth person i’ll go for the fourth person to increase my sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size and to avoid the low sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size now. Finally there is stratified random sampling that is based on strata for representation of each group in the population. The problem with simple random sampling is that certain groups may be under represented now. In order to avoid this problem. We can go for stratified random sampling. So how do we avoid this problem of under-representation of groups through stratified random sampling.
Let’s look at a practical example. Let’s assume i’ve got a population of students and the total population is 1000 and in this 1000 there are bachelor level students. There are master level. Students there are ms level students and there are phd level students now when i did simple random sampling. Let’s say there were very few students from ms or phd level. Now in order to solve this problem how will i do it using stratified random sampling. Let’s say out of this total population of 1000. I’ve got 500 bachelor level students. I’ve got 300 master level students. I’ve got 150 ms level. Students and i’ve got 50 phd level students so my total population is 1000 and the sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size required is. Let’s say 300. Now 300 is 30 of your 1000. So what i’ll do is i’ll have 30 percent from here. 500 multiplied by 30 divided by 100. And similarly i will have 30 from each one of them and this will. Let’s say let’s total. It is equal to sum. And this is what i required so obviously this needs to change. We need to format the cells. Let’s do it number okay so 300 so. This is the sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size i required. Now this is how you can sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research from each group to avoid under representation now. How will i select this 150 or 90 or 45 or 15 if you’re doing stratified random sampling. Obviously you will have the sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research frame. You will have the list of these students and then you will follow the similar procedure as we did earlier generate random numbers and select 150 from this list 90 from this and so on moving on now we know how to do stratified random sampling based on strata for representation of each group in the population. Now what if we do not have access to the size of the population. Maybe but if we do not have the sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research frame but if we do not want to or maybe cannot do sampling design or select our sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research based on probability sampling. So then we will have to go for non-probability sampling. The first and the most famous one is convenience sampling.
You select your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research based on your convenience. Let’s say i’m teaching at a particular university. It’s always convenient for me to select students from my own university rather than going to another university from another city. The next one is purposive sampling in purpose of sampling. The first one is judgment sampling so judgment. Sampling involves the choice of subjects who are most advantageously placed or in the best position to provide information required. Let’s say i want to study. Why or how woman can make to the top of the organization so obviously i will go for women who have made it to the top of their organization. Not for something that is convenient to me because they won’t be able to answer so it’s not always the case that when you are doing non-probability sampling you will go for convenience sampling and the second one is quota sampling. It’s just similar to what we did in stratified random sampling but there in each strata. We did simple random sampling. Here we want to ensure that certain groups are adequately represented in the study just as we did in stratified random sampling but here we will use convenience sampling to draw the elements from the population to be the subjects in our sample. So this is how you can use the sampling process to draw your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research moving on. I’ve got this framework here. The stepwise process you define your population. Second you define or draw your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research frame third you establish or try to find which sampling design is suitable for your study and four you consider your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size considerations and finally you execute your sample what is a sampling in research, sample in research size based on the conditions of your study and based on the access that you have to the elements in the population. I hope this video would have clarified the sampling process. Finally if you want to know more. This is a very good book on learning research the process of sampling and the other research related techniques and tools. Thank you very much you.
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