Global Research Letters

ResearchMethodology : Introduction

Good afternoon welcome to headset. Network friend district. We have organized series of lecture or business methodology research methodology book. You all are aware the result finding truth finding a solution to a problem but you know there are certain procedure that needs to be followed. If you don’t follow the procedure or certain rules and regulation. It will not find the truth all the solutions. So what are those procedure we will try to understand. I will try to understand the different aspect of research methodology book and for discussion on this very topic. We have in studio dr. a. Manticore he teach a research methodology book method to MPhil a student in Jawaharlal Nehru University and has written two books and contributed many articles in different national international. You know so only we have. I welcome him for the education. Welcome thank you imran ji. What i am going to do today is i’m going to introduce the idea of research methodology book method and i will be basically talking about five things five issues in this the first one is and which is the most important on which i will be focusing. Maximum is how to select a research methodology book problem. I think that is one of the things that research methodology bookers must keep in mind if you have selected a right kind of problem you have raised a right kind of questions on that problem. Probably half the research methodology book is done so the most important thing is selecting a research methodology book problem and also carving out a set of questions for yourself related to the research methodology book problem second thing. Is that constructing a hypothesis or tentative. Answer to the problem that you have that will be a second point that i will be discussing and third point. Is that kind of philosophical issues involved in the research methodology book. I will not go into too much of detail on that. I could have decided to discuss about philosophy of science in this section but at the moment I will be basically talking about three four. Three perspectives around which the research methodology book research methodology bookers are being done and the fourth question will be the debate between qualitative and quantitative method.

That has been a debate since the beginning of social sciences. The debate has been resolved in some way today today. We see that we don’t by firket this method so much and we adopt both methods and most of the research methodology book problems but yet they are issues involved in this and these issues have to do with practical issues and also with philosophical issues and the last one is selecting a method for research methodology book or a set of methods for research methodology book. I will not again go into detail of this. I will just mention four methods that we will be discussing in this series. I will just introduce them and leave them there so that in next four classes we can have detailed discussion on these things so the first thing that we must remember is that a research methodology book problem. What is the source of research methodology book problem for. Where do you get the research methodology book problem. I think any question that you have in mind any question that you want to answer is a question for your research methodology book is a problem for you. I mean you take anything you have to buy a car now. You want to select a car. How do you select a car. You make certain criteria that suits you you want a car. You have a large family so you want more people to be adjusted in the car. So that is one criteria that you use then you are saying well. I have this much of the budget. I want to have this much of the facility in the services. So you make your own criteria then you go to the market select the data from collect the data from different car companies. And finally you decide about your purchase so for any we conduct research methodology book. We do marketing research methodology book even to buy small things for ourselves in social sciences. We raise certain issues. We have certain problems and then we collect data at a larger level and we formulate certain kind of principles or the guide of Jerry’s out of that and then that helps us in understanding a social reality and also in making the policies so any question that you have can be a question or any issue that you have in mind can be problematized for research methodology book.

Then you you may also like to challenge. Certain established norms suppose. There is a established idea that that large family is a good family or a small family is a good family. Now you can problematize this issue and undertake a research methodology book to find out whether this kind of assertion or assumption is good or bad so many of the social assumptions you have you encounter. You may like to question those assumptions now to select a research methodology book problem for yourself. Two things are very important. One that you should have some knowledge some idea of the area in which you want to work either. You should have some experience of that area or you may have read something on that or you may have encountered certain kind of puzzle research methodology book that attracts you towards that so you should have some kind of idea of the field that you want to enter so the problem actually will become sharpen if you have certain kind of experience of the area in which you want to work and then you should also be able to select a proper research methodology book method to conduct a research methodology book in there in that area so there is a kind of two way process one. What problem you have selected for your research methodology book and two what kind of method that is suitable for that kind of research methodology book and then the when you are selecting a research methodology book problem and you are selecting research methodology book method. I think in social science or any of the sciences one of the most core idea is one of the most core ideas is that it should stand which is tan. They scrutiny in terms of procedure research methodology book. Required to be undertaken. So you should be able to tell your your consumers of the research methodology book that this is the method that I have adopted to undertake this research methodology book. So research methodology book should not be something in social sciences. Something so abstract that you are unable to articulate it for others it should be visible it should be obviously being discussed it can be discussed overtly so some kind of issues which can be shared by other people and the method research methodology book the knowledge they are also going to shared with other people that I think is a crucial idea when you are selecting a research methodology book problem in social science very abstract philosophical problem may give you a big big difficult times then you should also remember that we can’t convert all our questions into research methodology book problem.

We may have a number of questions but a proper social science research methodology book problem cannot be converted. Those questions cannot be converted into always cannot be converted into a proper social science research methodology book problem. Suppose as research methodology book problem will have to have certain kind of available knowledge with which you can engage with should be transparent to everybody you can share your problem with everybody. Everybody can understand this as a problem when I’m saying everybody that basically means the community of scholars whom you call social scientists should have certain sense of agreement on these issues when you are working on them so while selecting a research methodology book area you should keep these things in mind. What are the things that you should keep in mind. I think the one that you can raise a question which you encounter in your everyday life. You can challenge certain kind of assumptions research methodology book. You have to have certain idea of the field you have to have certain idea of the method that you’re going to take you have to. Have you have to have kind of sense that whether this kind of research methodology book can be this kind of issue can be converted into a research methodology bookable issue or not if that is there then we can move it and selecting a research methodology book topic see research methodology book. Problem is a very big thing. There is the whole area of thing. Then topic research methodology book becomes more classified more more. It can be that area of the from area to topic can be narrowing down in the research methodology book. Now when you are selecting a topic suppose. I have something in mind. Communalism is an area of research methodology book now we think communism there are several issues. There is a class issue involved. There are community so involved there are.

Violence is so involved so we have to try to find out which topic we want to select within the broad area of research methodology book problem and there we have to keep in mind. What is the state of scientific discipline. We have to conduct a good survey to see how the question that I have. Raised is being answered or has been answered by the community of scholars belonging to the discipline. Now it is entirely possible now the question that I have raised has already been answered in a very satisfactory way by many people research methodology book. If you are satisfied with the answer then obviously we don’t need to undertake new research methodology book. If you are not happy with the answer then we have to say that this is my happiness with an unhappiness with the answer and therefore I need to undertake a new set of new new research methodology book so a social problem that we can pick up. A topic research methodology book can be related directly to a social problem for instance we can say that the impact of globalization or new liberal regime on the labor in the rural area. It can be a concrete social problem with a broad rubric of what you call the labor issues or globalization issues within that there can be more concrete research methodology book topic that is now the ruler labor under the regime of neoliberal economy. Now while selecting a research methodology book problem or is a topic we should also try to find. See if it has certain value in society there can be a question is a question. It’s so important for me that. I definitely want to know the answer of it then probably I may undertake that research methodology book but it is entirely possible that there is an issue which attracts me so much but has no meaning in society research methodology book. No society is not interested in that. I think we should be careful about it either. We should try to see how society can be interested in the kind of research methodology book. I am doing or it’s also select research methodology book topics which has direct link with society so there should be some kind of social premium on my research methodology book and this we also with some practical considerations. How much time do we have.

How much money do we have. When do we want to put the deadline for this. So all depends on that. I would like to undertake a research methodology book on Elections by surveying from every state of India. But how much difference that will make one how much money research methodology book. I will require for that. – how much visibility is in terms of time so I have to strike a balance between the three to find out whether what kind of method we should adopt or what kind of topic we can select for research methodology book. We cannot select a topic to weigh and practically impossible to be research methodology booked. That will be a big difficulty now. From where do we get diseases topics or research methodology book problems. I think research methodology book topic and research methodology book problems we can get from many sources. One of the sources is the research methodology book conducted by others. We should immediately. The first thing we should do is we should go to the library. Look at the catalogue. Look at the catalog of books and the PhDs and try to see how many how much research methodology book has been done in this area already. Try to get them out. Read them carefully to see if they have already answered the question that I have or if they have not then there is a reason for undertaking a research methodology book. The other is literature if you say. I have a problem in mind and then I try to read the literature and I discovered that this problem is already being discussed there. So there’s no point in keeping in mind but if the research methodology booker undertakes a research methodology book after being sure that nobody has worked on it or at least nobody has worked on the dimension which. I am interested in then that will be rewarding. It is also possible to look at the review literature review or review literature. It’s possible too that you collect the literature in the field. You want to work and then review those literature to see if the literature has answered your question or if the literature has something else to offer some other answer to offer or if the literature if the literature has some elements available but mostly absent in that case we can take these things from different kinds of literature so literature review has two purposes one to map the field.

What are the things that has already been done in this field and two to see. What can we extract from various research methodology bookes for my own framework similarly one can take research methodology book problem from experiences. Gumm there can be determined priorities. There can be trivalent theories that one would like to examine. There could be imagination and the observed phenomenon so many kinds many considerations should be there when we are looking at a research methodology book problem or you want to adopt a research methodology book problem for next few years of work so selecting a research methodology book topic after we assured that we have entered into the program thing right kind of problem we have raised then. We are entering into selecting the research methodology book topic and in doing this as I said three four issues are important one. What is the state of affairs is our discipline to how a social premium is attached to that research methodology book and three that lot of new theories. Evaluations have emerged since the withdrawal of research methodology book from from different societies so there is a possibility that we get new imaginations so these are the these are the selecting these are criteria for selecting research methodology book. Now consider a selecting a research methodology book problem from from various areas various non-base various issues. Like maybe it’s my interest therefore. I want to work on it. Maybe there is a it’s it’s it’s feasible therefore. I should work on it. It’s possible to measure the concepts. I do have the level of expertise which I can use. It is socially relevant and data is available for this and there are ethical issues also involved in this and I am clear about ethical issues so if you have these considerations and we carefully about these concentrations that’s how you will be able to collect a right kind of research methodology book problem for your work now. What is the importance of formulating a research methodology book. Problem why am I talking about it. What is the fire will the fun of it.

I think if you get a right kind of research methodology book problem you will be able to design the research methodology book properly. Suppose we get a research methodology book problem which is based on or about which we have the data available then we can design our research methodology book in a very different way. If you don’t have data available it will be a very different design. So design will depend on the kind of problem. We will be adopting. I’m not going to talk about study design too much but let me just tell you that there could be many kinds of designs and these days. Experimental designs are becoming very popular. Then we should also try to be sure after we have been able to formulate a research methodology book problem properly that what kind of instrument of research methodology book we shall use. It is possible to select a research methodology book instrument once. We have a very clear idea of the problem that we want to resolve. And then once we have got the research methodology book problem it is also true that we shall be able to understand what kind of analysis we should use therefore it formulating a research methodology book. Problem is a very very important thing once you have formulated a search problem properly. You can design your study. You can sample properly. You can always develop it further so I think formulating a research methodology book problem is quite crucial. That means legacy what are the steps in formulating research methodology book problem. Let me repeat what we have discussed earlier. I think the first thing is the identification identification of the field or subject area of interest. That is the first thing. What am i interested in. We must ask ourselves. What am i interested in. What is that attracts my attention. What is that that is closer to my heart. I got a student a couple of years back who came to me and said that. I want to work on three novelists of India who were writing during the Friedel last phase of the freedom struggle and I want to analyze three texts produced by them towards the end of their life and would like to examine. What kind of arguments they are generating now.

There was a big problem because a lot of people thought this was not a proper research methodology bookable area but I think it was and the more important thing that the student was so deeply engaged with that since the Faculty never has worked on this. There’s a tendency in the faculty to avoid this topic but it’s very important to to create a research methodology book problem to agenda to adopt a research methodology book problem to identify research methodology book problem from in the area of one’s own interest and once you have identified that then you break that then you go into a core idea of it or you clear. Some areas and select one sub area poor area. From your vantage point. There was thus that sub area will be core area from your vantage point so select that core area. Select that main area for your research methodology book and in the selection process should be quite quite logically constructed. We should not go by emotions. We should go by logical arguments about. Why am i selecting certain area of research methodology book. Maybe one can see your emotional attachment with a field as an additional factor but in the academic world. We have to say why we are interested in that particular area of work and once you have the area of work then you raise research methodology book questions very sharp-pointed questions one idea in one question so that you can interview or you can collect data from the cat from the subject area from the area you have. You are undertaking research methodology book and then you can analyze them so research methodology book question is more sharp sharp statements or sharp queries about the field that you are working we are interested in working and the sharper. Your questions are more. Comprehensive better answers you get which can be used for analytical purposes and while going to the field by looking at the research methodology book problem you must formulate your objectives. What do you want to do. Maybe the problem that you are facing does not will not occur in the kind of thing that you are doing to do in research methodology book so it is possible that you select a research methodology book question which which is beyond your interest so not only that you have to look for the research methodology book problem in your own interest area not very narrowly defined but very roar broadly defined but also.

There is a raised questions which can actually take you to the field in which you are interested in otherwise you may be lost somewhere else and then as I said that the research methodology book problem a research methodology book failed research methodology book questions should be objectively designed should be objective design. Means i cannot say that i have chosen this research methodology book area because this is my hometown. I cannot say that I have this research methodology book problem I have. I want to work on a problem of divorce because I am facing divorce. And it is possible that you are also facing divorce and therefore you want to work on this but that could not be the sole reason for your research methodology book you have to give more logical reason. Why are you interested in this area. What is the importance of this area that you want to undertake research methodology book now. I will take couple of examples to make this point. One of the examples is joy. Hassan’s book processo essence book. Politics of inclusion is an interesting book. And what she finds why. What kind of problem does they raised in this. Let me never talk about that. She observes that in. India the backward caste and the Scheduled Caste the sigil drives are given reservation so that they can be included in the mainstream society ministry within cut. They can be become they can become part of say that sex is a story of Indian democracy the rising middle class movement you can say so. He has observed that these classes due to reservation policy and various kinds of protective discrimination. Have come up and they are. God they have got adjusted yet. Their circulation in the in the middle class circle has increased on the other hand. She observes that the Muslim community are not given that kind of right they have. They are treated as minority so their minority rights are protected. Their cultural rights are protected but by protection of the cultural rights and monetary rights.

It is not guaranteed that they will be included in this larger. Indian Indian big Indian dream in fact. She collects data to show that and she gives the evidence that how in last few decades this community the Muslim community has been further marginalized and in that case this morality discourse does not work. Then what should one do and the C wants to examine on the basis of various Commission’s of various reports given by different Commission’s that how far the monetary right framework has worked properly and if we change its framework and start thinking of giving direct benefit to these people as part of the backward community of India or cerebral community of India. Then probably it will be much better. They will be better included in the larger system so the politics of inclusion is actually part of the politics of exclusion so she suggests that if you want to eliminate exclusion. Then you really have to create new avenues for inclusive. So that is her interesting argument. So it suggests it requires the state to rethink its framework of handling this. Muslim community as morality. Missouri is within monetary majority framework. She requests the state to use the same kind of discourse or social justice for these people also then we take another example it very interesting example professor. Patricia Oberoi has it in a book called freedom and destiny gender family popular and popular culture in India. Why I’m saying is interesting because what I found is that she has given a clue about selecting research methodology book problem. She was going somewhere and saw that in a back of the bus or truck. Whatever there was a sentence written and sentence is very interesting many people must have heard about it the beautiful beautiful wife danger life that was. Hinton see right on that now. That sentence raised the question in her mind and that became initial point for a major research methodology book. That’s he undertook.

Because what are the questions. Why what kind of questions. The statement that beautiful wife danger life throws for us. I think in the PPT. We have correct corrected the spelling of the beauty but in fact on that truck or bus the spelling of the beauty was bu t y ful beautiful and that wrong is spelling itself became a source of major research methodology book and coming to that the sillier question that Patricia was facing at the moment. Whether what the perhaps perhaps this kind of a statement reflects and individuals account of personal tragedy may be the person’s wife might have left him. Maybe the person’s wife doesn’t like her like him and therefore there’s a tragedy and therefore somebody has written that but she also started thinking why a person should write this there it is if it is in the form of graffiti. Is it for warning the people that don’t marry or is it just to kind of joke that well you will definitely marry but your life will also be in danger if you have beautiful wife and then she starts exploring the question of wrong spelling. She says that well since the spelling is wrongly written it means that it must have been written by somebody who is not well versed in English so the painter the painter obviously is a labor class. So is it. She asked the question. Is it that this kind of opinion represents the opinion of that class that section of society in Asia about marriage and then she discovered that from this kind of issue. This kind of statement is not very uncommon. It’s quite widely accepted among ASEAN society and it has been reflected in many literary writings in films in various places in everyday discussion. People who talk like this. That beautiful wife is not good for your health and the reason behind. That probably is that people may be interested may get interested in that or I don’t know what is a reason. I think I’ll leave it to Patricia’s research methodology book but what I am suggesting is that this particular statement became Ignace ignition point for Patricia to undertake a research methodology book and loved sexuality gender patriarchy in South Asian countries and it produced a very big very big text.

He tried to survey the research methodology book done in this field she surveyed the documents produced by various. NGOs she then went to the went on collecting calendar arts to see if this kind of idea has been reflected in many places and she brought from this point that this is a commonly accepted dictum in this area this only reflects the idea about gender and patriarchy in the society. We can only take another. We can discuss another text by over m Lynch the politics of untouchability social mobility and social change in the city of India. And this is also interesting text as it talks about the chart of caste community in Agra and the question it raises is that how this why did the charters changed from acceptance of Hinduism and caste system to the rejection of them. What was the reason. And it undertakes ethnographical research methodology book and tries to find out these reasons so you can raise questions from your observations. You can raise questions by looking at other research methodology book. You can raise questions that everybody is facing today. So there are many ways of getting research methodology book problem and trying to about a proper research methodology book topic from that and then to formulate a set of questions to be asked and there are four questions three cause kind of questions. What why and how so what question what is happening. So you’re just trying to narrate what is happening trying to document what is happening. Why it is happening is an explanation and understanding. You are trying to explain on you to understand why it is happening. So it’s a correlation. You are looking for between different factors and how it is happening is a process and what can be done is a kind of interventionist thinking about it. So when formulating a research methodology book question you can raise these questions for yourself and try to get an answer so out of several questions you should select one or two as main questions and that will lead you to lead you to the right direction of the research methodology book now there is a there is a technique of collecting these questions and I want to give couple of minutes on this.

You know we have n number of questions in our mind and we can’t answer all the questions and probably there’s one or two question which can be the major question and the rest questions can be minor questions which are part of the major question so what we should do is while reading the literature while selecting our topic. We should record all possible questions that come to our mind. We should try to document all possible questions and then try to see. Do they fall within the research methodology book topic and eliminate some of them then. We can classify those questions. We can look at the scope of the questions and then we can separate the major question from the minor question. It is a major question which we are interested in minor questions may be answered in the process of the research methodology book in the process of getting answer for the major question once we have selected the questions when we have the research methodology book problem. We have the research methodology book topic within that. We have the research methodology book question within that then the next step will be formulating a tentative. Answer to the question and that is called hypothesis we can start with a kind of statement that you want to find out if that statement is right or is wrong regarding the question that we have raised so we we have different kind of variables while we are trying to understand the problem. Suppose somebody wants to say say that. Well somebody wants to find out a relationship between the labor and the globalization that is a broad area of interest. Then you select the topic. Impact of globalization on the labor process. Then you formulate a question. What is the impact of globalization on the labour forces in the area of in the sector of say medicine or in the unorganized sector. So this is a more further narrowing down then. You have a question from typical question that what is the impact of a particular kind of policy on the particular group so you have two variables the policy and the group so we can have a tentative hypothesis saying that this particular particular policy particular CA has adversely influence the labor force that this statement is a hypothetical statement.

We have to prove this either right or wrong. We do not know at the moment. We don’t have the answer of the question that we have raised. Therefore we are undertaking a research methodology book otherwise there is no need to undertake a research methodology book. We are nurturing your research methodology book because we think that we don’t have the answer of the question that we have raised. It’s a kind of conjectural statement. A conjectural statement about the relationship may be true it may be false. We have a tentative assumption and logically from the junction. We have derived this conclusion. This statement so this statement may be wrong may be right and we should exclude our opinion. Our value judgments our normative statements from hypothesis. Hypothesis is a very very objective statement about relationship between two variables or more variables that is hypothesis that that statement the objective statement that we give. There’s a possibility of it being correct. There is a possibility of it being incorrect. Now there is a possibility that there is a measurable we can measure the variables. The quantity quantifiable variables. Then we can develop a model if you want if the variables are not quantifiable even then we can develop certain other hypotheses and see whether it can be sustainable. Now once we have all these things then the real issue of method really emerges what kind of techniques will be select for research methodology book and as. I said that we have to be careful about philosophy of science where we are selecting a research methodology book. I have it. We are selecting our research methodology book tool. There is no of debate in social science and this very interesting text called opening social sciences produced by what you call the Gulbenkian Commission Wilbekin Commission has suggested that the social sciences earlier we are influenced by hardcore positivism of Newtonian philosophy of science and that produced a positivist social science but gradually since 1940s onwards in 45.

It takes it takes as cutting edge 45 onwards you find that the new kind of thinking is emerging and now there is an open system and we are not positivist anymore. We can’t dare to be positivist anymore in fact. Social Sciences should not be positivist at all that is the idea of the Gulbenkian Commission so the issue of science is involved here. What kind of method we should adopt in that. For instance we have three major philosophers of science. Durkheim a social scientist a positivist social scientist who has developed a social science on the basis of Newtonian philosophy of science we have popper who rejected the Newtonian philosophy of science and suggested that we can only talk in terms of possibilities in social reality. We cannot talk in terms of definiteness. Why did he say that because I said that the basic assumption of social science is that social science is is based. It is assuming that regularity is a necessary condition for being science and sufficient condition for being science if you find an event occurring several times and even happening several times what you do you terrorize about it. You make a general statement about that event because there is a regularity and the regularity must be there because of certain kind of law operating behind that you take you give a general statement about it. So regularity is a necessary condition for science and a sufficient condition for science that is the basic idea of positivist. Social science your kind has worked on suicide and I said that suicide may be very personal thing but the reason if we want to find out a causal relations between suicide and other factors what we have to do actually is we have to use a large scale data to find out a pattern in that and the pattern will explain what is a real reason for suicide so positive science base basis.

Its argument on the idea that regularity is a necessary condition for science and sufficient condition for science whereas popper suggests there are evidences to agree with that regularity can be a necessary condition for science but not a sufficient condition for science. A regularity cannot be sufficient condition for science. The popper converts all established theories into hypotheses. Everything became tentative. Everything is conjecture and it is not that whether it can be proved right in fact it suggests that if it can’t be proved wrong then we should accept it other way round and then you have people like. Kuhn and fair ban. They have suggested that. Probably what is scientific. What is not scientific depends not on anything. Universal but depends on paradigm that we are using who in particularly suggest that it is a paradigm the frame of thinking frame of reference from which we look at things so it depends on which paradigm we are using that will define whether something is taken as fact or not fact whether it is scientific or not so scientists themselves operate within these paradigms that is Union argument so if you look at the problem of selecting research methodology book tool you will find that you have to decide. With whom do you agree out of these three. If you think a positivist method is possible if you think a positivist method is desirable then probably you are adopting the hyman framework of thinking. If you think we can only talk of hypothetical statements we can only talk of hypothesis. Then probably we are agreeing with popper more or less if you think we are against method. No method can be used is a 5 & 5 ends argument. So you have to really work on the idea of the technique which technique do you want to pick up for. Research methodology book will depend on. What kind of what kind of philosophy you agree with then there is a debate and qualitative and quantitative method.

I will not go into detail again. I will just simply say that. If you agree with the positivist thinking then probably you will adopt quantitative methods more rigorously because it assumes that through examining through capturing the regularity you can theorize you can bring out certain concrete laws of society and you can work with the data the data sets and since data sets are about huge number of people you can then make larger statements so suppose. I want to work on suicide. It will say that collect 5000 data and work on them. You will get a pattern. Data can say a lot of things but then those who do not agree with positive method philosophy science. They say that look everything is conjectural. Data can’t say much because of the a social reality is too complex in fact it doesn’t really go into the deeper layer of social reality. So what we have to do is we have to adopt qualitative. Method like talking to them collecting information through ethnographic research methodology book in order to enter into the consciousness of the community on which we want to want to work and then only we can capture their social reality. So if you want to work on suicide in that case we have to go there. Stay with them. Talk to their parents. Talk to the people and that is how we can collect information about the suicide. We cannot have any general frame as your. Heim has worked out so there is a big debate between them. Nowadays people have agreed that no matter. What kind of research methodology book topic you have. You can use both kinds of methods and they can complement each other now. I am going to to suggest that in next few lectures these are the four kind of methods we will talk about and these four methods are qualitative research methodology book method one is a Content analysis. I am NOT going to detail. Just give you the idea that what is content analysis. The content analysis is adopted when you have large number of documents and you think that a lot of facts are there in the documents and the documents we have to read between the lines to bring out those facts those social facts so since the documents are product of certain kind of social processes so through document by exploring the content of the document you can enter into the social processes.

You can capture the social process so suppose you want to understand how do the. Hindi newspaper report the war natural violence. And what is the difference between the Hindu newspaper and the English newspaper in reporting an axial. Violent why it is important to ask this question because these newspapers are also in a way reflecting the fact that different kinds of social groups are reading them so their opinion must be due on that. So how do you get that. You will look at the content of the newspaper. For instance somebody saying one area is infested by nuts lights. This is what infested is a loaded word it has a content within itself so you can analyze that we can understand that well. The person who is writing is not in favor of the natural movement so you have n number of such kind of words being used concepts being used that can give you certain kind of idea about the social processes. Then you have interpretive method particularly when you are using using documents like Constituent Assembly debates you interpret. How do you interpret those debates. How do you bring out those issues. That was involved in debate. You use the interpretive study of that then the ethnographic study when you want to know about the community and you are assuming that community may be a Pacific community genuine. I take ethnographic research methodology book in which you go there. Stay with them. Learn their language try to be participant observer participate in their everyday life and then try to understand. How are they thinking of something. How the community conceptualizes something. The last one is visual research methodology book. These days large the huge number of visual documents are produced the films. YouTube videos photographs document documentaries recordings of the social functions so the video is a visual research methodology book.

Allow you to allows you to capture these images socially or trying to see the content of these images and read the social process through that those contents it is also helpful in documenting for the research methodology book purpose and trying to reflect upon them so visual research methodology book is something which is emerging trend. Nowadays lot of people are using these visual documents for research methodology book. So these are the four kind of methods that we’ll talk about in next four days. Let me recap the whole thing in the beginning. I said that. How would you look for a research methodology book problem. Then how would you carve out the research methodology book topic from the problem. And how do you carve out the research methodology book question from the topic and once you have the research methodology book question in your hand then what you do. You formulate a hypothesis once you have the hypothesis then you are looking for the method and that’s where you discuss about your philosophy of science time and from there then you select a method and once you select a method then you undertake the research methodology book so this is how we can start thinking about conducting a research methodology book. Thank you very much. That content analysis interpretive study. It’s no graphic and visual research methodology book so in kind of visual research methodology book we will also analyze the content so there are different codification for the content of text and visual units so there should be very technical way of using the visual units also the content analysis as it’s possible the text for the text. It is very easy for instance. We’ll discuss it but for that we take a question from the authentic. Madhava yes you however. What is the role of review of literature in various states in social sciences. See this is very very important. Review of literature is very important. Generally what the students do research methodology bookers do they try to read various books and in the section called literature review. They reproduce those readings in several paragraphs.

I think that is the worst way of conducting a review of literature review of literature. Basically means mapping the field the area. In which you are going to work you try to find out. What are the works has been done in that area already. How those works are engaging with the question that you have raised in fact this is where you try to make this point that the question that I am raising has not been answered properly. It has been answered in some ways that doesn’t satisfy me therefore I need to undertake afresh research methodology book so review of literature. The main aim of the review of literature is mapping the field and locating the gap in research methodology book that you want to fill up so it is extremely important aspect of research methodology book project. Okay some problem. We find that literature a large number of so in that case what you suggest only two last two or three years of the our literature we reviewed or all the search all nutritional what. I suggest is that you read you as many as possible but basically after doing some work you should be able to capture the trains and you should categorize the literature available so instead of talking about every book that you have read you talk about the Train suppose I want to work on the caste and class and class and ethnicity relationship so I have discovered that there are five kinds of literature available. One kind of literature is which suggests that class does not exist only ethnicity etches we give a title to it. Ethnic model second suggest that ethnicity doesn’t exist only cross exist third suggests that no ethnicity and class are mixed together so it’s H class model. Fourth may suggest that well ethnicity and class both are either event. There’s some other category that is useful. So you put your available literature into different categories. Talk about the general characteristics of the category and then bring some books as example or if you think that. Within the general category there are three subcategories.

Then mention those subcategories and then give examples and then show it that how each category responds to your question. The question that you have raised right so the first thing is the classification of the literature available. Yes yes okay. In case of the hist you know when we try to find out the historicity of something some events in that case what we find that the more person here the author who has written the books in the early say the after independence and now they have what they are writing their perspective a complete different so in that is what one needs to do. I didn’t get your question. Are you suggesting that somebody has it in a book at some is a case. I am talking about the Proust Linda. I’m beginning they were Marxist approach now the liberal approach naturally obviously okay in fact in fact you should leave when you are reading the text. One of the main main task is to locate the text in the larger theoretical framework. And so one can do this kind of thing that one can put all books falling under the Marxist approach together right so these are the paradigms that within which you are operating so it is a good idea to put books written within that perspective together and show that how they are different but not measure difference you have to justify. Why are you putting some book. Under one. Category that justification eh : elector. Yes that is required so the literature review what are the other criteria one should while doing a literature review. They are certain some kind of methods or some kind of approaches. We need to apply while doing it. Yeah the most important thing is that you should. You should definitely cover those books which are widely known in that field and what is how do you know that you should pick up one book and see whom are they referring to. What are the references in that. That’s how you’re going to start getting into it and it’s also talk to the experts in that area. That’s where the role of the guide comes will suggest that these are the prominent books in this field path-breaking books in the faroe.

That so definitely you should not miss out any book published just before even just before your research methodology book in a literature review. You should definitely talk about that and try to first tell the reader that this is what they are saying and how. It is adequate or inadequate from my perspective. The other thing in literature review is you know literature review is very important because that is the place where you also generate certain ideas that can be used by you later on when you are formulating your own argument also suppose. I have. I have discussed four kinds of theories and I am saying that these theories are wrong and I am giving a fifth theory now. What is the criteria of accepting your theory. As a better theory the criteria is that you should be able to explain what four theories have explained. Plus something more than that. So towards the end of the thesis you have to demonstrate and look the four approaches discussed in the beginning what they are explaining and kept this new approach that I am adopting. It is capable of explaining all four plus there are certain areas which cannot be explained by them. And we will to explain that. Also that is a criteria that you have data now the focus is on interdisciplinary approach. So how can one mix this kind of thing now in fact you know. I am of opinion that there is no question of interdisciplinarity that doesn’t mean the RAM is empty ocean from okay yes llamada. What if a writer writes on social issues like homosexuality child sex for non-violence what could provoke probably with a research methodology book hypothesis. It depends what kind of problem you want to pick up suppose. I remember a student who has worked with me on homosexuality. He picked up this issue. That can we can we agree with the formulation. That homosexuality is immoral on the basis of religious values so that is one of the argument. That’s a question she picked up and then what’s he did see analyzed the religious checks to demonstrate that know where religion suggests that actually homosexuality is ethically wrong or morally wrong she took an example from from Indian mythology raga death when Ganga came there.

There was a child or which didn’t have bone and when it was touched by. Ganga he had the bone something like that. So lot of such questions can be raised and number of questions can be raised here so well friends within what. I was just just half a second. Yeah because that may create some problem this where I am saying there is no question of interdisciplinary research methodology book well. I don’t believe in disciplines not that I do I am NOT. I’m against interdisciplinarity. I am saying that actually since truth is integrated whole so we should not do. Put the very different if didn’t say before. I would okay so well friends with these we what we conclude the lecture. I thank all of you for watching the lecture and honor we have. I thank dr. Damon Tobler for giving such a wonderful lecture. Thank you very much thank you very much.

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