Hello and thank you very much for clicking on this session introduction to research methods and methodologies. I’m Samuelsson and I’m an academic skills tutor located in the Writing Center as part of the University of Liverpool today what I’d like to consider are not just methods of methodology but the application of such constructs within your academic studies and indeed the final methods research, types of research methodology project process as well so the agenda for this session includes an overview of the final methods research, types of research methodology project process. What is the difference between methods research, types of research methodology methodologies and methods so often we use these terms interchangeably but naturally fact there are core distinctions between these terminologies. What is theoretical. What are theories water. Universals what are ways in which we can apply process and methods and methodologies there. Hopefully this session will just navigate some of the core distinctions and approaches that you could use as part of your methods research, types of research methodology that culminates into the drafting of your final methods research, types of research methodology project now two particular approaches that. I’d like to talk about today are quantitative and qualitative and again really defining. What do these mean. How is one. Say something that’s measurable and how is one a conceptual or the other conceptual framework all these sorts of things. So what are the distinctions between these approaches. And how can they be utilized and inform your own methods research, types of research methodology the next point. I’d like to consider is choosing the methodology dependent upon your subject area. And the topic of which you’ll be looking at. We need to ensure that you apply a probe appropriate methodological considerations and here. It may be something too that you’d like to discuss with your adviser but part of the final methods research, types of research methodology project of course thinking about not just methodologies methods theories and theoretical approaches but also principally is set in an appropriate methods research, types of research methodology question. And so what we’ve got here within. This presentation are sample questions that can kind of just help us to think about how we may construct an inquiry.
I will further look at common pitfalls the pros and cons so the first part of this presentation are going to be all the positive proactive ways in which we can engage the processes of methods research, types of research methodology and methodologies etc. But then there’s going to be just some slight top tips about ok. These are the approaches. But this is what you need to do. Be mindful not to kind of go in this direction and so just some top tips of navigation there with all methods research, types of research methodology projects of course and inquiries ethical considerations need to be built into the methods research, types of research methodology design. And that’ll be another topic for discussion further aspects that. I’d like to look at are some are in top tips questions and answers and I’ll speak a little bit more about that in just a moment. Ok so the final methods research, types of research methodology project process is exciting moments. Where you as. The methods research, types of research methodologyer are looking into a particular area. You are collating. Data of since this is academic as well as potentially vocational based methods research, types of research methodology. You are essentially contributing a dialogue within the field of study but there like any writing with any forms that study. Consider this a process. Not everything is going to write up the night before submission. It’s a process and the actual fact the principal process. I would argue is not entirely the writing up phase but natural fat they approaches it and considerations that you need to think about in order to write up your file or project and so think about the methods research, types of research methodology area and which you are engaged in identify a gap in the literature select a topic of interest and so there is another record and about literature review and how to approach literature. But of course as we’re looking into the field of study we’re looking at areas in which to progress the dialogue and so perhaps look at an area that needs fuller and further discussion or perhaps has received a complete mission of discussion within the academic discourse. And so your final methods research, types of research methodology project can come in at a number of levels and so do make sure that when you pick your topic.
It’s from an informed basis that you are aware of the academic discourse and dialogue within the community of study. So that to be sure that you pick a topic area that is relevant and pertinent certainly at this postgraduate level. So once you’ve had a if you like a rummage around at the subject areas you’ve picked a topic. Think about the methodology and methods that you choose in all and engage with in order to draft and approach your topic area. Now all of this all of these stages are essentially not just a solo journey with you going through these stages but pleased to enter into a dialogue with your adviser who likewise is an expert in the field of study and so that you can talk through methodology and methods that you may or are considering to utilize in order to respond to your subject area but further considerations in terms of the process of a final methods research, types of research methodology project includes ethical approval. And of course there. There’s a comprehensive document that you will be expected to complete to ensure that the ethical declaration approval is had and that is absolutely crucial so as I say there are a number of processes in terms of administrative processes to the final methods research, types of research methodology project as well as methods research, types of research methodology Pro or processes so okay. You found a gap in the scholarship. You’ve kind of got an idea about methodology and methods that you may engage with. You’ve got the ethical approval. Well this is where. I suppose the work begins. You need to more fully methods research, types of research methodology and analyze findings based on if you like depending on the methodology depending on the quantitative or qualitative approaches. That you’ve engaged. You need to synthesize articulate. Your approaches with those who have been had within a broader scholarship of your field of study from your methods research, types of research methodology and analysis of findings and again depending on your methodological approach here. You need to write up.
The results of that in an articulate synthesis of analysis. Okay it’s not just kind of describing but analysis and to some extent dependent of course your discipline area and interpretive framework of those results as well but okay. You’ve decided the various kind of layouts of your methods research, types of research methodology. So you’ve got your introduction. You have for example thought about the various chapters that are going to form that final methods research, types of research methodology project. When you’ve written it up an actual fact the initial rise up is just one part of the process. It is incredibly important to edit and revise your writing because sometimes we can get quite involved in what we’re writing up that we’re actually speaking to ourselves on the page and not necessarily to the broader readership that will kind of interact with our work. And so it’s so important to put things aside and then go back and vice to be sure and ask ourselves questions about our own methods research, types of research methodology writing as we would ask questions about literature or scholarship. More generally is my thesis statement. Clear are my aims and objectives coherent clear and relevant is my rationale firmly articulated. Are my chapters interconnected thematically or otherwise have. I utilized appropriate methodological approaches have. I understood appropriately the methodological approach that. I’m applying here and applied it appropriately. So in actual fact the editing and revising stage is quite involved as part of the process. Because it’s not only just what you’ve written but the presentational format of what you’ve written as well. That’s important are my chapters clear on my paragraph constructions. Coherent is a firm line of argument that is being consistently run through the material are my conclusions appropriate interpretation articulation of the findings of the methods research, types of research methodology and then and only then once. We’ve gone through that rigor making sure everything is nicely polished that we’ve got the appropriate referencing style to our discipline area. That we put commas in the right places the final touches then are just a light.
Dust of essentially revising the edited version of our revised methods research, types of research methodology final methods research, types of research methodology project. And of course at that moment it’s time to submit the project so as you can see the process involved and there are micro categories of consideration within each incremental moment within this process. And so what my top tip. I suppose that isn’t mentioned on the screen here is of course time management. You know to make sure that you know we see when we need to submit the final methods research, types of research methodology project and part of that process planning out when we’re going to make these incremental stages and realistically how long would you need to take in order to complete successfully these incremental stages as well and you may want to use the. Gang chart as as a medium to articulate your time management but it’s not time management that it’s the core focus for today. Of course it is about different types of approaches methodology and methods. What’s the difference and here is where. I’m going to focus on so methodology. Is the rationale behind your methods research, types of research methodology. And the lens through which you will analyze your results. Some examples include the following of following terminology here describes the lived experience of a phenomenon as Nog Rafi looks at culture and social norms of behaviors of a group and action. Methods research, types of research methodology is where the methods research, types of research methodologyer systematically looks at a problem and tries various solutions to see how effective they are so this is methodology. Now here the core point is the rationale behind your methods research, types of research methodology. I want to emphasize that and the lens through which you will analyze your results now. Of course what you see here on the screen are a number of potential impro. Chah’s and of course these will have broader considerations such as potentially social economic considerations and approaches and such like but these are just initial. Start points just for you really as a prompt to think about well methodology.
What is this but methods in. I suppose in contrast but intertwined connection in are the tools you will use to carry out your methods research, types of research methodology for example a survey or questionnaire a focus group a case study structured interviews a controlled experiment. And so if you like. Methodology is the rationale and the methods are essentially the tools of practical application in summary. Then the methodology is how you will answer your methods research, types of research methodology question and the method is what you do to collect your data. That’s the distinction okay and as I say so often. This terminology is so fluidly applied but there are core distinctions and I think these distinctions really help you to distill your approach and the way you think about your own methods research, types of research methodology and how. You’re going to consider your topic area now here. In terms of considerations there are two major methods research, types of research methodology paradigms according to Cresswell 2003 that you may consider as part of your methods research, types of research methodology approach and this is qualitative and quantitative okay now. These aren’t the only considerations of how to approach your methods research, types of research methodology area but these are the two of which. I’m going to discuss here. That are our particular pertinent and. Cresswell is absolutely right here. These are the two major paradigms qualitative methods research, types of research methodology questions usually aim to explore. Okay explore a question. With no set hypothesis beforehand a qualitative approach is more about gaining in-depth insight than it is about empirical generalization that can be applied to say a population the design then of a qualitative studies. Include the following naturalistic that looks at real-world situations as they unfold naturally and there is a lack of preset limitations and findings another aspect is emergent where the methods research, types of research methodologyer is open to adjusting their methods research, types of research methodology. Question and methods to pursue new lines of inquiry as they emerge in contrast then quantitative methods research, types of research methodology questions usually contain a hypothesis and/or try to protect something and so the approach is include descriptive.
How much how often comparative. What is the difference between and relationship. Based what is the relationship between x and y so quantitative studies are characterized by tools that are carefully designed before data is collected. Okay larger sample sizes and the ability to be replicated. Okay so as you can see here. The these two approaches that are the two core paradigms that are used within methods research, types of research methodology are qualitative and quantitative now simply spoken then we could say that quantitative is something that is measurable and and what. I find really useful. Is this paradigm distinction which is drawn from Macintosh and O’Gorman 2015. Just to kind of give the top tips or top ways in which we can analyze these two paradigms but throughout your methods research, types of research methodology you may think well which paradigm is appropriate for your methods research, types of research methodology area and again please do talk to your adviser about this. Biggs could be that. Mis methods is applicable to your methods research, types of research methodology but again even a mixed methods approach. We need to make sure that we are fully understand. The para dynamics comes construct of those approaches so before you decide which paradigm will best fit your methods research, types of research methodology question. Think about what you want to know. And the nature of your methods research, types of research methodology question and this is where you know. Methods research, types of research methodology questions are absolutely core in setting the the framework of response and methodological consideration and methods. That will be utilized within your methods research, types of research methodology project so further and further in the point. There how you want to collect your data and who you are as a methods research, types of research methodologyer now. I think here you know we. We all have different ways of approaching material and the way in which we approach material will be enhanced through some of the pie. Now power dynamic constructions that we see here through the collider the quantitative or the qualitative so the positivist paradigm includes focus on facts looking for causality and fundamental laws reduce phenomena to simplest elements formulate hypotheses and test them operationalize concepts so that they can be measured take large samples the more qualitative in nature includes the interpretivist paradigm and this is focus on meaning or meanings.
Try to understand what is happening. Look at the totality of each situation develop ideas through induction from the data use multiple methods to establish different views of phenomenon. And this is what. I was talking about earlier in the slides in terms of various methods which could be for me to use in order to formulate articulation. Small samples investigated in depth over time. And hopefully the these paradigms here on screen has helped you draw upon core distinctions so in order to choose a methodology essentially. We need to start with a methods research, types of research methodology question. Ok so think about your methods research, types of research methodology question what information you need to address and and I think in order to search as I mentioned on the previous slide in order to set a methods research, types of research methodology question. You need to do some groundwork you need to kind of consider what is being said within your field of study not only just to potentially find a gap or find a point of it of of entry that will formulate your articulation of the question but also to consider the leanings of the methodologies and the methods been utilized by scholarship pertinent to your field of study as well that groundwork will certainly form the base of which and how you you will potentially address your own methods research, types of research methodology area so think about your methods research, types of research methodology question and what information you need to address it. So considerations include what kinds of data would help you answer this question. How would you want to present your result so doing that. Groundwork and essentially asking these two fundamental questions you know the very basic simple points of departure here will actually help you in a reflective way. Consider right okay. This is where myself as a methods research, types of research methodologyer. I tend to lean towards and this is the type of methods research, types of research methodologyer that I am and these will be the methods or methodological considerations that I will take in order to perform this methods research, types of research methodology.
This is what I’m looking for. If it is a more exploratory approach you are. After such as working to understand a phenomena or the behaviors and experience of a group of people a qualitative paradigm might give the best results. If for example you want to look for correlations comparisons relationships or trends a quantitative paradigm. Might work better for you that once again here just drawing upon the societal distinctions between those two approaches. And how you may engage with those approaches. Not only interesting that in and the think point of your question articulation but also you know formulated based on your border reading and methods research, types of research methodology of other areas and so qualitative and quantitative methods research, types of research methodology questions. Different approach and here are some examples of both of those paradigms so what. UK university students has experiences trying to eat healthy on campus. How can expressive writing improve the mental health of incarcerated women in the US was our UK Secretary’s school students perceptions about gender differences in mathematics intelligence. And say these are the types of questions that you could canvas for a qualitative approach. Quantitative examples include a descriptive approach how regularly – UK online postgraduate students or use optional academic support resources a comparative approach. What is the difference in daily calorie intake between men and women in London and a rly relationship-based question could look like this. What is the relationship between job satisfaction and salary amongst expatriate workers and so as I say the way in which we articulate to our question identifies our approach. Ok and the subcategories within the paradigms of which which we see here in terms of qualitative and quantitative now. I do appreciate. This is quite a lot to take on board and it may be really useful for you obviously for you to consider these approaches but have a fuller discussion with your adviser.
That’s what they’re there for. They’ll be delighted to discuss this with you. So examples of a qualitative methods include face to face interviews of participants. A moderate approach could be 30-minute in via interview a more in-depth construction 45 minutes. And these you know that the modal of interface interviews could include structured semi-structured or unstructured approaches. Your study focus. Group could be. I suppose between 60 to 120 minutes and of course the other approaches includes a case study observation and analysis and so this is Jess if you like a highlight of some of the approaches that you may take or when it comes down to the practical approaches of your methods research, types of research methodology but what I would like to consider here is the planning to take a qualitative approach and to consider. Do you feel confident conducting interviews or focus groups. Although there are other politics possible ”tis these tools are fundamental to this approach to the qualitative approach. And so you may think well actually. I think this is my approach. This is the paradigm of which I would like to take. But these are the implications of that paradigm and is making sure an actual fact that those various tendencies of that approach are achievable and applicable to your study so be reflective. I suppose at an early stage. Do you recognize your role as a methods research, types of research methodologyer and what that involves no with a qualitative approach. The methods research, types of research methodologyer accepts that data gathering analysis. It’s a value. Laden process and those who really think about you know what the the procedural elements are of this particular paradigm so some of the pitfalls or common pitfalls of the approach the students planning to use intervals and or focus groups be aware of the following equipment failure environmental hazards as well as transcription errors. And these are fundamental the methods research, types of research methodology on this level and certainly at postgraduate level needs to be very sharp succinct articulate and precise because obviously any methods research, types of research methodology that you’re doing here will have a further impact in terms of articulation and dissemination.
So do be mindful. You do some groundwork here make sure your equipments working think of environmental hazards make the environments as distraction-free as possible and as comfortable as possible as well transcription errors. Be careful when transcribing material as a misinterpretation can change the essence of what has been said so. Also beware of colloquialism jargon or slang. Make sure that we’re not making assumptions. About perhaps some of the colloquialisms or jargon that have been referred to make sure it’s very clear what what meaning is it has been conveyed now a further approach that you may want to look at. It’s been had here as you could. Seen the material is drawn from Chris furnace turn mcComish and greenberg. And you. You just made mm here. You may just want to have a quick look at the resource. They’re just for kind of further tops hipsters anyway. These are some of the core ones now. Examples of quantitative methods includes a survey involve an analysis of primary data collected using a structured questionnaire statistical analysis of people’s health data for example comparison between two two data sets and analysis of population trends however even responsive given in words can be turned into numbers and analyzed like responses on the. Likert scale a new numerical responses to survey so here once again are further ways in which or microelements of which need to be considered or could be considered if you’re using quantitative methods so planning to take a quantitative approach. Well you need to consider. Well how many responses will you need to for your survey questionnaire to produce statistically significant findings do you feel confident carrying out statistical analysis because it obviously is a core element and will you have access to and be able to use some kind of statistical software and one such elsewhere includes SP SS but like with the other approach that I was talking about it in qualitative what are the pitfalls compared.
Falls of quantitative approach. Well these could include not asking enough people too. Few participants makes it difficult to produce statistically significant findings treating raw data like validated statistics using opened ending questions a poorly designed survey of course will impact of course our findings too. So let’s on pick this a little bit more closely so treating more data like validated statistics. Numerical data needs to be interpreted and verified to be meaningful. If we use open-ended questions these are difficult to quantify a poorly designed survey here if we need to be really sure that your questions are clear free of bias or confusing language and account for all possible answers and so once again. There’s quite an involved process involved in the articulation of whether it’s the qualitative approach or the quantitative approach and we just need to be sure that we are constructing appropriate tools and constructions in order to be you know as we approach our methods research, types of research methodology on final project but all final methods research, types of research methodology projects need to include considerable points and one core point is the ethical consideration of your methods research, types of research methodology design so when designing your study keep any percent potential ethical concerns on conflicts of interest. In mind your advisor can help you. Think about the methods research, types of research methodology design and guide you through the ethical approval process and so some of the points of consideration is participant vulnerability nature of the topic consent confidentiality in an annuity method for. Clayton data and methods research, types of research methodologyer vulnerability please note. We do have a separate presentation. Devoted to ethical methods research, types of research methodology design an ethical approval process. I’m just referring it to here as a fundamental part of the process of your methods research, types of research methodology design and so please do take this on board so what I’d like to do now is just to give a summary and some tops hips okay.
The goal is to make sense of your data and to relate it back to your methods research, types of research methodology question and how it addresses a gap in the literature and within the broader topic methods research, types of research methodology area. Okay so that goes back to what. I was saying earlier be flexible. And how you gather information how you understand and interpret that data and I think really in order to consider this top tip. It needs to be very clear within yourself. What the approaches are what are the methodologies. What are the methods and although I’ve used a language theory and theoretical. I haven’t really discussed those much or broadly here. My focus here has been purely methods and methodology but do be mindful of the of the very broad canvas of methodological as well as as well as methods tools that you could utilize as a methods research, types of research methodologyer and as I say I’ve just discussed just some micro elements in this presentation checks that you will be able to obtain permission to access a date and to use the findings freely. That’s crucial as well and check that the analysis hasn’t already been done and reported elsewhere so in other words. Be sure that what you’re doing is providing a essentially a contribution to the field of study. Remember that you cannot collect any date until after you have ethical approval you will likely end up with more days since that knew you know what with this is certainly the case and so sometimes there are certain things that we need to or certain decisions that we need to make as a methods research, types of research methodologyer so I do avoid the temptation to just write it all down your analysis of the data is absolutely crucial but I think my absolute top tip here. Is your advisers there to help you throughout the methods research, types of research methodology process. Furthermore there are academic skills tutor like myself. I just mentioned again. I’m dr. Sam Newton and I’m located in the Writing Center and we’re there to help you at every step of your journey as well so do please reach out to your adviser. Who’s the principal point of contact for your methods research, types of research methodology.
But do you obviously feel free. If you’ve got any academic skills query to reach out to us as well if it’s enlighted to hear from you and so here. I I appreciate that. This is a recorded session but I do think you know it’s important that you reach out if you do have any questions that I’ve raised in a presentation today or if you would like further clarity or for me to expand upon the points please don’t hesitate to contact me. I I’m I can be found in the Writing Center and it’s always a delight to hear from you. If you have any questions about how to approach your methods research, types of research methodology please do reach out to your advisers as well. Thank you very much for your time and enjoy your methods research, types of research methodology.
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