Global Research Letters

Finding Studies for Systematic Reviews

My name is kate kraus. I’m a librarian at the md anderson cancer center and i specialize in literature searching and systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. And i love scriptmatic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. I could pluck your ear off for hours about them. Um my colleague thoria layton. The instruction librarian is going to be helping me out today with all of the technical stuff and the questions in the chat box and a few other things and i greatly appreciate that soraya. Thank you so much. Um you all should know that. She teaches a lot of other classes on searching pubmed and endnote and lots of other things. And uh. We’ll be uh showing you those classes at the end of the session and where to register for them. Um okay so we have a couple of learning outcomes for today. Hopefully this class will go about 45 minutes um and hopefully have some time at the end for any questions that you guys have. We have our hopeful. Learning outcomes are to teach you how to figure out which databases to use to search for studies in a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. There are a lot of them and it depends on what your topic is. The second outcome will be to show you briefly how to search them. Uh this is a little bit difficult a little bit detail-oriented but hopefully you’ll come out with a good idea of how to search the databases and those two are huge topics. Um and we’ll probably take up most of the class but if we have time at the end we’ll also talk about searching gray literature unpublished study and how to do that. Um as we get through all these topics just let me know if you guys have any questions in the chat box um and here we go. Oh um we are going to be using the help guide at the library websites. Raya looks like she posted that url in the chat box. If you like do you can go ahead and click on that and move around in it as we talk about. What’s in that help guide or you don’t have to do that. You can just follow along um in the class if you uh would like to do it that way. How do it works all good. Um oops let me let me get to that slide.

So going to the systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review help guide on the library website. I’m going to scroll down a little bit. There’s a lot of information here. We’ve gone over a lot of these tabs in previous classes. Um the one we’re going to be using today is the searching tab right in the middle so that has quite a bit of information on it. This is a very full page crowded with text but i will give you a little hint. Uh the most important things are on the left hand side so just this one column. You’ll see our learning objectives are right here which databases to search and then below that. It’s called search syntax. But that will show you how to search the databases so um if you remember nothing else from this class the main most important takeaway is that when you do a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review you have to search in many different places. The reason for that is because the idea of systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews is to find all of the studies that are out there about your topic every single study. That has ever been written on your topic so that you have found all of the evidence out there and that way as you evaluate all of the studies you can be sure that you are going to be presenting a conclusion based on all of the welcome to available studies. And there’s no one place that you can do that. There is no one database. That has all of the articles that will give you all of the studies on your topic so instead of searching all of the two or three hundred different databases that we have through our library. Uh there are three recommended ones. That are the best to search and i’ve got them written right here. The first one is medline we have it through an interface called avid medline. A lot of people. Um it’s it’s a great database. It’s basically the same thing as pubmed but it has nicer search features. So that you don’t end up with 10 000 results that you have to review sample review paper, sample of paper review you can really refine your search and do some sophisticated search techniques so that you have fewer citations in the long run to review sample review paper, sample of paper review so medline is the most important database for systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review.

It’s probably where you’re going to find 90 of your studies however 90 is not good enough remember. This is a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. We have systematic methods. And we want to be as complete and comprehensive as possible so the second most important database is invade. A lot of people are not quite familiar with that one um it also has thousands of medical journals in it but it is much larger than pubmed or medline. It’s more international in scope. Um it’s also really really strong especially if you are doing a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review about some kind of drug mba started out as a pharmaceutical database. So the way that you can search for drugs is really fantastic. They have it mapped out really great so two most important databases for systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. Medline number one and they second and then the third one is web of science and that is a huge database and it is a very got a very wide variety of topics in it. It’s not just medical journals. There’s biology journals and chemistry journals and a little bit wider range of topics so those three should cover pretty much any topic that you’re doing a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review on mostly. Um if you’re doing something with a psychological nature or nursing kind of topic there are other databases that you might want to use as well. These are listed a little bit lower in this column. Psycinfo is great for psychology journals. Social work journals things like that. Binol plus that is really great for nursing and allied health topics the cochrane library is also a fantastic database. Especially if you’re looking for only randomized controlled trials. We’ll get into that a little bit later. Google scholar um that will sometimes bring up other um citations for articles that you might not have found through the databases but you know it’s got such limited search features. It’s a little bit. Uh kind of a big wide floppy search but it can be good especially if you’re having trouble finding studies on your topic and then there’s a variety of gray literature resources.

Those studies that are not published in traditional peer-review sample review paper, sample of paper reviewed medical journals. Those are really important. Um and it’s the one thing that most people often leave out we’ll get that up in the class if we have time so um each of these databases works slightly differently. Um you can’t just come up with a a little search string of search terms and then plug the same thing into each three of those databases. Unfortunately it doesn’t work that way but i’ve got some little helpful tips and tools for you guys right down here below this example search in three databases let me go ahead and open that up and sariah let me know when it pops up on the screen so i can be sure. I’m showing the right thing so this is just an example of a search screen on one topic and how it looks in three different databases. The topic is the effectiveness of antidepressants in cancer. Patients and i have chosen avid medline the most important database and mbas the second most important one and web of science the top three there are uh two main ways to search all of the databases you can look for subject headings which are kind of like labels used to uh identify articles and then you can also search for words in the titles and abstracts of the articles when you search the databases. Just keep in mind. You’re not actually searching through the full article text. You’re just searching the records that have the titles and abstracts and the subject heading. So let’s take a look at one of these. This will probably make a little bit more sense as we scroll through one of these real quick. Let’s just look at the ovid medline. Search i’ve kind of color-coded it to make it a little bit easier to understand this. Uh top part in. What is that. Pink famine rose a top part in pink. Um that is the part of my search. String where i’m telling the databases i only want articles that are about antidepressants.

So you can see at the top the top three lines got these weird little splashes at the end of it and this exp at the front of it those are subject headings um and when i put exp that explodes that the subject heading so that it lists all these smaller subject headings like each of the individual anti-depressant agents is what they call it. So that’s nice but it doesn’t get everything um the subject headings are fantastic. They’re really helpful. But oftentimes articles won’t have any the most recent one year the most current articles it takes them up to like a year to get subject headings assigned to them. So if you only use the subject headings you’re going to miss all of the current one year’s worth of articles and you definitely don’t want to do that so to get around that we also search for words in the titles and abstracts and that’s what number four is. I am just trying to think of every possible antidepressant and way to say that that would appear in the title in the abstract. So right here i’ve got some you know prozac and all the other ones listed. I had to shorten this. This was about. I don’t know 30 lines long but i didn’t want you know something so long for this presentation so i took out a whole bunch of them but you get the idea. This is basically the name of every single possible antidepressant that is on the market and a few that are being tested. So i’ve got those here. This uh dot p-i-a-b that tells it to search in the title and abstract fields and then at the end i say okay i want my articles to have any one of these um one through four. Any of those are fine so that that is sort of the idea of how search strings work it gets a lot more complicated because usually you have more than one topic so not only do i want my articles to have antidepressants in them. But i also want them to talk about cancer so this part in blue is that search. String that identifies all of the articles that talk about cancer and once again we have a subject heading at the top that explodes to include about 100 different terms for cancer.

And then i have some of the words to identify cancer looking in the title and abstract once again i really really shortened this for this presentation. There’s like 100 different terms that you could use so you can see that um figuring out how to search the databases how to use the subject headings how to use the title and abstract searching fields. Um it’s a little bit a little bit more complex than you would think. You can’t just type in innovative persons in cancer because that will miss so many relevant articles at the bottom here in a different shade of pink. I have a little search hedge is what we call that. This is a well established. Highly used list of about five or six terms that identify randomized controlled trials once again. You can’t just type in randomized control trials because a lot of the studies out there. Don’t say they’re a randomized controlled trial in the title or abstract. So it’s a little bit more complicated to find but you have this example right here you can copy and paste this. This is the most widely accepted way to narrow your search to rcts. A lot of people do that for systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews and one last thing this is really common. A lot of people want to narrow their search to humans only and exclude any animal studies. They also like to limit their searches to english language articles and a specific year range. So this is a really good example of how to run a search in medline and you can use this as a sort of a template to create your own search strings in medline like i said it is the most important database to search usually in systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. They will add this uh search string for medline either in an appendix or supplementary content online if a standard practice to include your medline. Search just to show that you knew how to search the databases sort of a mark of quality other databases not so important to include in your article but sometimes they are included as well.

So one thing i want to show you here is that um nbase looks kind of similar and it is more or less it works the same way but it uses different subject headings so in medline you had anti-depressive agents plural and in place they use different subject headings and there is antidepressant agent singular so little things like this will drive you crazy and make you go cross-site uh especially when you have a search string that’s 300 lines long. This is a nice short simple one but they can sometimes get really complex. Web of science is totally different. You can see here. They don’t have any subject. Headings you just have to rely on words in the title or the abstract you can’t refine your search to humans. Only it’s just a good example of how every database works differently. I could have put psycinfo up here or the nursing databases and they too would be completely different. So we’re here to help you with this. Um you’re not on your own. You’ve got this template you can kind of follow for the three big ones and this is really helpful below it. I have included a little sort of a cheat sheet. That tells you how to use some of the most commonly searched for parameters so you can limit your searches to the title field or the abstract field if you put quotations around your search terms that will keep those two words together as a phrase if you want to get the singulars as well as plurals. You just use this little asterisk at the end of your word stem a lot of nice little um tips. That will guide you through creating your search strings so i’ve also got some example search structures. Um down here these are really uh helpful. Any questions about this so far. I know it’s a lot of tedious detail. Um the pubmed is awesome and some people do use that for their systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. But it’s kind of an old-fashioned clunky database in as far as how you can search it it’s got the same articles in it. You’re right you know you could use pubmed if you wanted to but if you use pubmed instead of medline um you can’t do things like phrase searching with um word variant word endings.

Um you would have to type in the british spellings as well as the american spellings and just a lot of little things like that. Um your search uh strings end up being a whole lot longer you have to type in a whole lot more to get the same thing that you could do in the medline. Um of a medline. Uh so it’s just a choice of preference um yeah if you um uh whoever asked that um if you want to email me afterwards i can explain the differences in more detail to you um after class but yeah i think we’ll see some systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews out there that use pubmed um it depends really what people have access to. You know through our library at md anderson we have so many great databases that we can offer you. A lot of people at other institutions. Their libraries are not able to offer all this wide variety of databases that we have so. Keep that in mind when you read. Systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews take a look at which databases they searched. Um some are more thorough and more comprehensive than others just depending on you know what they have available so i am gonna go back to the help guide all right. How about that. We’re back on the health guide all right so that was um on. Our schematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. Help guide in the searching tab um that was under search syntax example search string and three databases use that as your template. If you need more information i have created two other help guides that. Give you a whole lot more in-depth detail and examples of how to do search strings. Probably one that you’ll want to take a look at is the subject searching. Uh because that is a little bit difficult to figure out how to find the subject heading and take a look at that one open it up so slow and there we go fantastic okay so this just gives you a little bit more information. Uh for example right here it shows you the difference between medline and mbase.

These are the subject headings for breast cancer so you can see that they are different between different databases and mbas has more so you can get more specific more focused. That’s helpful and we have step by step procedures about how to find subject headings with circles and arrows of what to click on to find your subject. Headings this example is uh. Somebody’s looking for the subject heading for lung cancer and the databases try to help you out. You can see here that it automatically when they typed in lung cancer it linked them to a sort of a subject heading page and it tells them use the subject heading lung neoplasms and then it kind of tells you wait. There’s more narrow focused subject headings if you want a particular kind of lung neoplasm so the databases are great. They try to help you out. It can still be a little bit confusing and overwhelming. Um but you can always email me call us. Anybody at the library can help you with this. Um and believe me uh if you do have problems you’re not alone it’s just there’s so many you know different topics and it’s hard to organize them and make it easy to understand. Uh how they’re organized. Let’s see what else does this have. Um here’s an example of how to search subject headings and keywords at the same time we had this in your template that we looked at just a minute ago with the three different databases but this is what the results will actually look like when you type it into the databases so you can see right here. We have exploded exp that subject’s heading for long neoplasms so that will include all of the um different types of lung cancer. We want them all no matter. What kind small cell large cell every kind of lung cancer and you can see that that brought up 22 000. Oh wait 000 um articles in that subject heading so yeah. There’s a lot of stuff written out there. That second line is looking for words in the title and abstracts and then you combine it together and you come up with 28.

I’m sorry 281 000. So that’s more than just the subject heading because remember. I said it takes about a year for articles to get subject headings so you have to kind of do both of those things search the subject headings and search titles and abstracts and then combine them. Okay so you can look at these help guides when you’re doing your search strings. I wish we had more time to go over them. But this is a sort of short introductory class. Let’s go over great literature. I think we’re moving along pretty good. So what is great literature and why do you want to search it so back at the help guide. We are looking at gray literature. Resources um great literature. It’s basically articles report um any other kind of information resource that gives you uh the results of a study but isn’t published in a traditional medical journal so it could be a government report fda reports a pharmaceutical company report and species and dissertations presentations at conferences. Things like that and it’s really important to include those types of studies because if you don’t you’re going to skew your results to be more positive than they might be the reason for that is that there’s something called publication bias journals tend to publish positive results more so than negative results so if somebody does a study let’s say for example. Um i looked at this drug that we’ve been using for 20 years now to treat leukemia. And you know i. I did a clinical study on 300 people and we found that this drug we’ve been using for so long really doesn’t actually work that well and it has side effects which are worse than we thought they were things like that negative results or even just kind of so-so results journals would rather publish something. That’s like hey here’s this bright new shiny drug and it looks really really promising. So sometimes people have problems uh getting published in peer-review sample review paper, sample of paper reviewed medical journals when they have negative or kind of so-so results and if you don’t go out and try and find those kinds of studies your results in your systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review are going to be a little bit more positive than they should be so.

There’s a lot of different ways to search for gray literature. Uh once again. Unfortunately there is no one place. But i’ll give you a nice tip that will make things a little bit easier. So i just linked on that grey literature link and it brought us to this webpage which is a list of resources that will give you gray literature. Now there’s a whole bunch here but i will tell you the most important ones. Um there’s two basically that i use quite often um that are good for randomized controlled trials. Only if you’re looking for other types of studies these won’t help you but if you’re looking for rcts these are the main ones that you want to use. And that is Which is the registry of trials and then there’s another similar one further down in the page that is called the who international clinical trials registry. It’s the world health organization um basically the same thing as but is primarily united states. This who ictrp is more international in scope. Those will give you lots of randomized controlled trials and other kinds of trials that may not yet have made their way into the journals so those two are invaluable another really really easy way that you can search for gray lit. Let me go back to our libguide here. Our help guide great okay so remember up here in mbase that second. Most database say the most important database to search that actually has tons of conference proceedings and theses and dissertations and other types of articles that are considered to be grey literature in it so just by searching and base you are searching some of the grey literature not all of it. Oh um if you want to be very thorough i would search those clinical trial registries. Another uh really. Common way to search for greylit is through association websites so the uh the academy of neuropathology whatever whatever their website often has reports and things that have not made their way into the published journals yet.

Very good way to search for gray lit any questions about gray literature. This is the one step that a lot of people leave out in their systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews and that is a shame because it is viewing towards the positive braille. It don’t forget about it so we have gone over very quickly which databases to search a quick overview of how to search them. And now i am going to give you two two huge tips. That will help you so much. This is the whole. Uh one thing that i really wanted to show you because this will save you so much time and help you so much. Um when you’re trying to construct a search string for the databases um one really really really helpful thing to do is go to the cochrane library that’s listed on our little help guide here on databases search and i will show you. Let’s actually get into cochrane. Somebody give me a topic somebody type in the chat box a general topic that you’re thinking about doing a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review on and this way we can actually show you an example. That might actually help somebody. Okay let’s see. I’ve got have had a cellular cancer or anybody else. Okay let’s do hepatocellular cancer liver cancer. I’m going to just do a quick search just so i can demo this. I’m just going to change this to title and do hepatocellular. Oh too late. I’m already typing hepatocellular carcinoma. So the cochrane library gives you a lot of different things. It gives you some systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews that have already been published and it also gives you a list of clinical trials on that topic. Cochrane is basically. Uh let me tell you this real quick. It’s an entity an international organization that is geared towards helping people make the best systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews out there so if you ever see a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review and it’s a cochrane systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review you know that it was conducted very very well and the cool thing about this.

That will help you so so much is that it will show you what databases they searched. And what their search strings are so when you’re starting your systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. Just try and find a cochrane systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. That’s on a sort of similar topic to yours and it will save you so much time. Let’s take a look at um. Oh i don’t know these are all good. Um let’s just click on the first one. This is comparing a couple of drugs for the treatment of liver cancer. So when you look at this um you will see that it gives you. The article gives you the systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. But what i really want you guys to look at um is not in the actual text. It’s in one of the appendices. So if you click on the right hand side where it says. This is so appendices. Y’all it tells you what databases it searched and what search strings it used to search them so for medline for example this is kind of a short and sweet little uh search. String here on this particular one it tells you the subject. Headings it tells you how they did their keyword searches. I mean it’s fantastic. It will save you so much time you get an idea of how to start your own search string for each of the databases you’ve got medline. It’s got invas. They searched another database called science citation index. And um each one will be a little bit different but such a fantastic way to start out creating your own search strings. All right um what was the other one immunotherapy. Let’s just take a look at another one. Real quick. Immunotherapy is a huge topic. I’m just going to do a quick short little search here. Let’s just look at one more because each one is a little bit different. You know. Um let’s just click on the first one antigen specific active immunotherapy for ovarian cancer. So we find this cochrane systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review and we click on the appendices on the right hand side and voila. We have got the medline search strategy. Here we can see all their subject headings and their keyword searches.

We’ve got the end base search strategy. This is fantastic. Oh it also gives you some helpful things. Uh data extraction form. We’ll get to that in another class. Uh lots of really helpful things so you don’t necessarily have to start from a blank page and recreate the wheel from the beginning. You can look and see other people’s systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews and how they did them um very helpful hints another really helpful hint. I wanted to tell you is that i’m going to try and get to here. We go the library webpage. We actually have a free service where we will search all of the databases for you not all of the database. We’ll search about three databases for you. We’ll export them to endnote. We’ll remove the duplicate copies and we will send them to you in whatever format you like so basically. You don’t have to do all of this part you don’t have to do the search strings and figure out which databases to search. We’ll do all of this for you. It saves you an enormous amount of time to request that we do a search for you. It’s going to be just. This could be a search for a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. Or if you just want to do a quick literature search and find you 10 articles on a topic that you’re having a hard time finding we’ll do that. Also so at the library webpage you go to services and click on literature searching right here and there’s a search request form right here this blue tab at the top request a literature search so this is a fantastic service. Um it saves you a lot of time and a lot of brain strain. It’s it’s most libraries cannot do this for you but md anderson has a fantastic staff of librarians and we’re very experienced in systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. So this is a great service. Y’all should take advantage of it. There’s a couple of caveats though. It does take us a while to do this and we usually have a waiting list so it may take a several weeks to get you your results. So if you’re in a rush this probably is not the best option for you.

We also have some requirements. We we won’t do a search for you until you have given us a protocol planning out your systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. We have a memorandum of understanding that you need to read. These are just things that we require. It doesn’t take very long um but just to make sure that you know what you’re doing and you’re actually going to complete your project. Um the reason for this is that it takes us about. Oh gosh it depends anywhere from 10 to 20 to 30 or even more hours a long time it takes us a long time to search all the databases and construct search strings and combine the search results together. And get them to you so we try to do this. Only for people who we know will complete the project as planned so fantastic. That’s great you can. You’ve got a lot of tips now for doing search strings and figuring out which databases to use you know about a new service that we have where we will search the databases for you and give you the results for a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review. Um there’s a lot of other things that you’ll need to do when you either look for the results yourself or let us do it for you. The one thing we don’t have time to talk about today is the format when we give you your results of articles that i studied. How are you going to look at those. There’s a lot of different ways. There’s a lot of different software packages and endnotes or refworks rayon. There’s a lot of different software that you can use. We don’t have time unfortunately today to go over that. Most people at md anderson tend to use endnote um which is great but there is a little bit of a learning curve. Soraya teaches classes in that online and she also teaches some classes in some of the databases. Um so you might want to take advantage of that as well so let me um get back to my powerpoint slides of a protocol. What a good question. Um i do. I don’t think it’s on the help guide but i can add that and i can email it to you. Why don’t you send me an email after class and i will send you a couple of examples.

There is a checklist that you can use. That will help you plan out your protocol and for those of you. Who aren’t familiar with protocols. A protocol is basically just a plan of how you’re going to do your research project whether it’s a clinical trial or a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review or any type of study. You need to plan in advance what you’re going to do what software you’re going to use. Who’s going to do which parts where you’re going to publish it. You know things like that. Excellent question any other questions. Now’s a good time. Uh where can you find surveys questionnaires. Oh okay so um if you’re doing a systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review not on randomized control trials but you want to include evaluative kinds of studies like questionnaires and surveys and things like that. Those will also be included in the databases as well and you can specify uh what kind of studies you want to include in your search string. That’s a little bit a little bit more difficult than you would think to do. But we can help you with that good question. Most of the systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews we work on at md anderson um are sort of quantitative in nature a lot of them a lot of them limit it to randomized control trials but we do also work on systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews that include other types of studies especially if they’re psychological in nature some of the nursing topics from the social work group um they do like to include other types of studies as well. I think it’s a little bit more complicated because then you have to think about. Uh how do we evaluate them. You know for different types of studies but yeah we do that all the time we can help you with that uh medline web of science and mbas. Those are the three main ones that you want to use. You don’t have to use other ones. You don’t even have to use all three of those but those are the newest best practice guideline recommendations so if you want a really good quality systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review that will get accepted into a high impact journal.

I would definitely recommend using those three and that will get you a better shot at being accepted by a really good journal. So yeah this is a series of short classes on different aspects of systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. Because if i tried to teach everything all at once it would take eight hours um or three days. We do have three day classes in how to do systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews those are specifically for cochrane review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. That will be coming up in the spring. Um but you know three days of how to do. This type of study is a little bit much so we’re trying to break it down into narrower shorter topics um the next one is going to be selecting studies for systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper reviews. There is a prescribed method that you have to use when you choose which study that you have found to include in your systematic review sample review paper, sample of paper review and we’ll be going over that in december in the new year we’re gonna have a whole slew of new classes um so email us let us know what you guys want us to teach. I’ll just listen with anything and the databases literature searching. You know whatever we can help you with. It would be great to have your input as to what you would like us to teach so the classes you can register right here at md I think you guys already know that because you managed to register for this class um and let us know if you have any questions you can contact us in a lot of different ways. You’ve got my email address right there. You can book an online consultation with one of the librarians and we can just meet with you online for half an hour about your specific need. Whatever it is you’re working on and what you need help with. You can also text us short questions or chat with us online or email us. We’ve got tons of ways to connect with us our library building. Yes so here’s all of the different ways you can contact us. The the library’s physical space is unfortunately still closed because of covet. So you can’t actually go to the library but you can um contact us and we can help you online in so many different ways.

Most of our journal articles and a lot of our books are available online anyway. Our print collection is getting smaller and smaller as we get more things available digitally. So it’s really not too much of a problem all right so we will be posting this online presentation on our youtube channel and i will send you the slides and any anything else. Just just email me and uh we’re here to help you guys appreciate the time okay. It’s 11.50 unless unless anybody’s questions. I think we’re done and i hope to see you guys in december for the next class.

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