Welcome to the sixth video in this series of critical appraisal modules. In this module we’ll be focusing on the critical appraisal of cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designusing the critical appraisal skills program or cusp approach for the learning outcomes. We will introduce you to the main features of the design of a cross-sectional study and discuss their benefits and value in healthcare. We also want to get you thinking about those critical appraisal concepts relating to validity trustworthiness of results and value and relevance in the context of cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designand how they might be applied in practice using an open-access example of a recent study. Finally there will be a link to a short quiz at the end of this video. Which will give you the opportunity to test your knowledge on concepts we will have discussed using multiple-choice questions and answers. We’ve now considered cohort and case-control studies. As two kinds of observational study cohort. Studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designare generally the strongest design in terms of their robustness. In quantifying the relationship between exposure and outcome and case control studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designare a useful design if we are investigating the rare outcome and we need to find the first answer to a public health question and would be possible in conducting the cohort study. Cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designare another kind of observational. Study which typically uses a survey our questionnaire design to survey people who are representative of a population at one point in time to assess the relationship between an exposure and outcome for example. We might be interested in the relationship between exercise and depression so we can undertake cross-sectional study by identifying representative population sample asking them about their levels of exercise and simultaneously about depression symptoms to see if the two are associated cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designare usually relatively simple to undertake and they are often conducted as a preliminary investigation into the causes of a disease or outcome.
There is no available checklist for appraising a cross-sectional study in the casper toolkit however the criteria for assessing their quality are similar to considerations used for cohort and case-control studies. We’ll talk through a few key. Themes and as an example we’ll look at a cross sectional study by Bowdoin natal 2010 on cigarette smoking and depression tests of causal linkages using a longitudinal birth control which you can access by following the link below this video as with other observational studies. We wanted to be sure. There’s a cross. Sectional study has addressed a clearly focused questioned in this study. The research cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designers were interested and whether or not there is an association are potentially a causal link between cigarette smoking and depression their research cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research design question is contextualized against previous epidemiological findings and the subject. In this study an experimental study would not be possible as it would not be practical or ethical to randomize people to smoke cigarettes. When we know this is harmful to health a cohort. Study was also require a long latency period and years of follow-up a cross-sectional design therefore seems reasonable as a first step to answer in this question as in a case. Control study it. Vital the participants I recruited into a cross-sectional study irrespective of their exposure status to allow for a true representation of the potential relationship between an exposure and an outcome in a cross-sectional study selection bias can usually arise from either and non-representative sample been chosen by the research cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designers are by people who are selected to be research cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research design participants not responding to the study. This can introduce bias because those who for example do not complete a survey may be different to those who do for example people who are motivated to complete surveys may be more health conscious than those who do not take part in this study. The participants were assessed at multiple points in time as part of the longitudinal Christchurch health and development study in New Zealand.
The arthurs do acknowledge that there was a tendency for children from our disadvantaged segments of society to be underrepresented in the study like other observational studies. Cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designcan be afflicted by recall bias if self-report measurements are used to classify exposure and our outcome. This study was a cross-sectional study at multiple points in time so the multiple time points element of the study means it is less likely to be susceptible to recall bias but it is still important to bear this point in mind. When critically appraising cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designconfounding is an important phenomenon to consider in cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designas with case control and cohort studies. Just to recap a confounder is a factor independently associated with both an exposure and an outcome and it can hide true associations between exposures and outcomes. Are it may suggest that there is an association when in fact on his present it is possible to statistically adjust for confounding in cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designand in fact the authors factored important confounders such as employment status or cannabis use into their statistical modeling after accounting for confounders. The authors found that the association between cigarette smoking and depression was statistically significant. A hallmark of the cross-sectional design is this it measures exposure and outcome at a single point in time this specific feature leads to a potential drawback. Which is that. It is problematic to access the time directionality of an effect. How can we be sure that an exposure did precede an outcome if both have been measured at a single point in time also it may even be that the outcome is causing the exposure. A problem in cross-sectional studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designthat we call reverse causality to take the exercise and depression example again. A study may find an inverse relationship between depression and exercise with high levels of exercise being associated with low levels of depression we might then conclude that exercise could be protective against developing depression are beneficial for people with depression in alleviating their depression symptoms.
However if this issue is being measured at one point in time how do we know that. It isn’t the case that it says our way around. That is that people who are not depressed. Amahl moated to exercise. This study concluded that the association between cigarette smoking and depression was causal with the direction of causality. Being from cigarette smoking depression. It is always possible however that the direction of causality may be the other way around in a cross-sectional study or in fact. The manufacturer could have caused both the exposure and the outcome the believability of results can be assessed by considering the factors. We have previously discussed such as confounding or bias. It’s also important to consider whether the results may have been affected by chance. Assessing the believability results requires judgment and consideration of factors such as the biological plausibility of the relationship. Between exposure and outcome and the contextualization of the cross-sectional study in the wider body of research cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research design in the field judgment is also required to consider the potential local applicability and the results the 7th module in this series. We’ll look at diagnostic studies cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research designand we will be following a similar format that we used in this video to appraise an example of a recent study. Thank you for listening. These training videos have been developed by the Cochran common mental disorders group at the university of york with support from TSS can reevaluate Jai’s Foundation Trust Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust and the Economic and Social Research cross sectional design in research, cross sectional research design Council. If you’d like to test your knowledge on the topics introduced in this module please select the link below the video you.
Where to find great research papers?
Various great research journals such as Global Research Letters are a great option and way to help you look up impactful research papers with a great format. Here, you will find a number of various research papers that are provided and made available to you in the journal, which will help you write your own paper.
You can very easily find papers on a variety of topics at Global Research Letters, which will help you with your own research work and understanding of writing and publishing research papers properly. With access to so many amazing research papers, you can practice and learn the process of writing research papers and their importance.