Introduction:

Hello everyone in my previous presentation I discussed the definition the rationale and the methods of developing research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology questions this presentation is about the what why and how of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypothesis in other words we will briefly discuss what is a research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypothesis why do we need to have research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses in our research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology studies and how are the ways in which we develop research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses in what are different types of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses so first of all let us begin with the definition of a research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypothesis a research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypothesis is basically a tentative explanation or prediction or proposition formulated for testing or exploring empirically so um as we know that in social sciences and in generally in all sciences what happens is that we have certain tentative explanations or predictions about certain social or natural phenomena and so those tentative explanations or predictions are propositions related to these social phenomena in the social science context can be considered as a research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypothesis so research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses are generally based on assumed relationships between variables in a research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology study as we know that generally we have certain social phenomena represented by certain variables that we want to explore in our research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology studies so those assumptions actually lead to research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses so in other words hypotheses state the assumed relationship between independent and dependent variables before the actual existence or otherwise of this relationship is empirically established in a research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology study this is also called an educated guess so hypotheses especially hypotheses are associated with quantitative research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology and with positivist paradigms of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology and in this type of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology we generally have variables that are independent variables and we have variables that are dependent variables in other words the dependent variable actually change independent variables depend on bringing changes in the independent variables and so but before practically experimentally doing that we have certain educated guests related to the relationship between these two variables and that guess that educated guess is basically based on the assumed relationships that we call hypothesis so a simple example of a hypothesis is given here social economic status of students affects their self-esteem here socioeconomic status is the independent variable while self-esteem of the students is the dependent variable so it is assumed uh that socioeconomic status of the students affect their self-esteem similarly another one is there is significant relationship between teachers teaching styles and students classroom participation so again you see an independent or an and dependent variable and there is an assumed relationship between these two which we term as the hypothesis now we move on further and discuss some other aspects related to hypothesis hypotheses could be accepted or rejected once empirical studies have been conducted so as we say that hypotheses are educated guesses and that actually means that that the statements that we consider as hypotheses are not essentially true or false we can get to those conclusions on the basis of our empirical studies so again acceptance or rejection of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses have no bearing on the value of the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology project it is not essential that your research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypothesis must be accepted or must be rejected whatever is the result or the outcome the value of the hypothesis is still intact then good hypothesis generally should indicate relationship between variables clearly so there should be no ambiguity in terms of the way hypotheses are presented in research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology studies again good hypothesis should be in precise language scientific language um and the next important thing is that good hypotheses should be representative of the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology objectives in many cases um I have seen that research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology students develop research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses that are not representative um that that are actually not representing the topic that they are actually exploring and so good hypotheses should be representative of the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology objectives in the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology topic then good hypotheses should be testable empirically we should not develop hypotheses or come up with hypotheses that cannot be tested empirically now the next question is why is it that we need research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses well research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses are important in research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology studies not in all types of studies but specially empirical in in more especially in quantitative and experimental studies hypotheses are very important so generally we have hypotheses in all sorts of social science research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodologyes but they are more clearly stated and more visible in more quantitative experimental type of studies in comparison to other studies such as maybe more exploratory or qualitative research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology studies so the reason for having hypotheses in our studies is that hypotheses give clear focus and direction to the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology process then generally the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodologyer the hypothesis actually require the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodologyer to do sufficient reading and reflection around the topic before formulating and refining hypotheses and this is a very useful thing before embarking on the practical research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology during the process of development of hypothesis or hypotheses the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodologyer gets into formal reading around and reflection around the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology topic and that actually not only helps in developing the hypothesis but also helps the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodologyer in getting insights better insights into the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology topic before formally exploring it then it also gives tentative answers to our research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology questions and that actually helps us in getting into the right direction in exploring the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology issue then it also helps in giving direction to the process of data collection analysis and interpretation so you can see that a hypothesis or hypothesis play a very central role in the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology process now we move on to the how of it and actually this mean that what actually is involved in the process of development of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses well there is an there are certain initial questions and there are always initial questions before the the formal uh process of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology those research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology questions the questions lead to reading and to actually literature review which further leads to the formulation of our hypothesis or hypotheses so there could be one hypothesis or a number of hypotheses then on further reflection and discussion in peer review we can refine the hypotheses that we have developed initially developed for our research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology and then the other important aspect of it is that generally towards the end of the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology process the hypothesis has to be either rejected or accepted as a result of the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology process then the how question also revolves around the different types of hypotheses so different types of hypotheses have been identified and these include descriptive hypotheses these are hypotheses they state the existing state or form or nature of something so how or in what state something some social phenomena is for example corporal punishment is prevalent in schools now this shows the state of this particular phenomena corporal punishment whether it is or it is not relational hypothesis these are hypotheses that state relationship or causation between variables so in other words there’s there are two types of relational hypotheses one shows relationship between variables and the other shows causation which actually means that one variable or variables one type of variables might be the cause of another type of variable or variables so an example of relationship is a correlational hypothesis is this one female students academic achievement is better in social science subjects than male students and then and here you see that the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodologyer actually wants maybe wants to establish a relationship between gender and academic achievement and in the second one example of causation parental involvement enhances students academic achievement so here you see two variables parental involvement in students academic achievement and one is presented as the possible cause of the other one so this is the an example of the causation type of hypothesis then the how also further have some other examples some other types and these include simple hypotheses so what is a simple hypothesis a hypothesis based on the relationship which is actually cause effect relationship of two variables an independent variable and a dependent variable is called simple hypothesis so here in simple hypothesis there are two variables one is the independent and the other one is the independent variable and and simple example of this type of hypothesis could be this one corporal punishment affects the mental health of students so here you see carpool punishment is one variable the independent one and mental health the dependent one and so establishing a relationship between these two is reflected in this particular hypothesis then the complex hypothesis relationships cause and effect among multiple variables independent and dependent so if there are more than one independent independent variables establishing or guessing a relationship between these two types of variables which are more than one will be an example of complex hypothesis and so an example of this one could be corporal punishment affects the mental health of students which results in the poor academic in their poor academic performance so as you can see there is this one independent variable and then there is the dependent variable and then there is another dependent variable and so you can have more than one dependent and independent variables and as the relationship becomes more complex so you can say you can see that the name complex hypothesis we now move on to the some other categorization of the research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses and the two further categorization of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypotheses include the no the null hypothesis so what is a null hypothesis this type of hypothesis assumes that there is no significant relation between variables which is dependent variable and ib means independent variable or that change in one variable is not the effect of another variable or change in another variable this type of hypothesis the null hypothesis is denoted by h0 or ho example corporal punishment does not affect the mental health of students now this is an example of a null hypothesis or there is no significant relationship between corporal punishment and students mental health again we are arguing that there is no relationship no significant relationship and so indication of no significant relationship between variables is something that is represented in the null hypothesis towards the end of this presentation we will also discuss the alternative hypothesis which is something the like the very opposite of the null hypothesis so what is alternative hypothesis this type of hypothesis assumed assumes that there is significant relationship between variables that is the dependent variable and the independent variable or that one variable the dependent variable is the consequence of another variable the independent variable this one is denoted by h1 and examples of non of of these include two types of the alternative hypothesis one is called the non-direct non-directional hypothesis where there is significant relationship between corporal punishment example of it is actually that there is significant relationship between corporal punishment and mental health of students and then corporal punishment affects students mental health so this type of relation this type of of topics or this type of hypothesis will actually be considered as the non-directional because we do not know the direction in which variables actually relate with each other or in in which one variable actually affects the other one so that direction is not known and so they are called non-directional directional on the other hand um not only tells us about the possible relationship of variables but also the direction in which their particular effect takes place so for example there is significantly positive relationship between corporal punishment and mental health of students now that says that is an example of the directional hypothesis also corporal punishment negatively affects students mental health and again this shows us the direction it it’s not just the effect we are not just saying the corporal punishment affects students mental health but we all we are also um assuming the direction which here is that it is negatively affecting the mental health so this was a brief general introduction to what the hypothesis is why do we need hypotheses in our research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology studies and what are some of the types of research what is research hypothesis, what is hypothesis in research methodology hypothesis.

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