Course which we are starting today that is the drdp course now in this particular course the very first thing which we have started is a research who can successfully conduct research methodology workshop okay now in this particular workshop the classic component what we are aiming to teach you people is the eh-2-zed of research who can successfully conduct research okay now before I formally introduce myself let me make one thing very very clear to all of you who are currently viewing it first see this is a mixed bag audience okay there are people from those who are doing that post graduation in the first year there are people who are doing the senior residency there are people who are still interns okay secondly there are some clinicians from varied branches and also there are people who are from the PSM background okay so due to that particular thing this is not a tailored made course which will be only be targeting only the clinicians or only the interns are only the PSM people it is a mixed bag now the reason it is a mixed bag because research who can successfully conduct research doesn’t segregate into clinical side or into PSM side okay so that is very very important now the next point is see there will be many of the speakers who will be taking your sessions now we all are your friends and that has to be absolutely clear to you any kind of hesitancy any kind of problem you have feel free to contact us okay we are available for you personally as well and also by the electronic media so we expect that you just open up your mind the reason is see we do not want that you take this as a student and teacher relationship Raja you should be be taking it as a professional relationship the reason to it is we are trying to build a research who can successfully conduct research workshop where down the ages probably 10 years down the line we might be working as partners okay so please clarify that okay now I am dr. Siddharth okay I am a postgraduate in Community Medicine from All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi I have done my senior resident say from a Chandigarh okay so I have been trained in specialization of research who can successfully conduct research okay I am rather I should say I am NOT MD computer medicine I’m probably an MD research who can successfully conduct research methodology person okay so I’ll be one of the persons who will be taking your classes okay but there are many more it’s free for you to interact with any one of us it’s not mandatory that you should just link up with me only okay now this particular course which we are currently learning we will have this course for seven days now these are that dates which has been provided with specified details of each module okay now see today’s module is all about the introduction okay and then there is a very good proverb in Hindi we say unpalatable ah okay that is if the ending is good enough then it is a good deal but I will say if the beginning is good you also cherish the moments okay so today’s class you might feel is not that technical but this is one thing which will work with you for your entire life so those who are attending today’s class just sit back and relax because I want you to be active enough okay so the first activity would I I out like is so those who are listening to me please hi hello buy something across the country Chandigarh but now Delhi Mysore anyone yeah okay so we get the first hi from Chandigarh hi man okay so good that you are here and we are about to go into the technical session I am just giving you overview the reason to that is we are still waiting for the participants who have not yet turned in Delhi itself because of the reason of high pollution you might have read it out so we will have an introduction by the time in five minutes and then we’ll start with the project okay now see we know that research who can successfully conduct research is very very important now why it is important because first now everywhere you require evidence second it is important for treatment and also for diagnosis see you cannot prescribe x-ray to a pregnant lady who is having some chest symptomatic we know it now okay but this was not the guest probably 100 years back okay next in public health or even public policy making this is a very very important component and also if you are planning to become an academician that is if you are planning to become a faculty at a Central Institute or even in any state institutes you need to have good quality research who can successfully conduct research okay so that is the basic aim of having a good strong background in research who can successfully conduct research now what are the bottlenecks see being the student from the two most premier Institute’s if you ask me when I was a student it was very very difficult for me to grasp what was being taught the reason is the head of department used to come and teach this research who can successfully conduct research and the sir or ma’am used to have an experience of 30 years and we used to have a experience of three days or three weeks or maximum three months so there used to be a huge gap where we were very much in a factor of phobia or you can say a fear of stetcher we were unable to clarify our doubts okay that is one big issue what happens in our medical colleges second majority of the medical colleges even in the state do not provide us any opportunity for research who can successfully conduct research okay now what we are planning see we are planning that we are utilizing the satellite platform to reach you all across the country so that gradually down probably five years down the line we have at least trained 500 to 600 research who can successfully conduct researchers who can subsequently perpetuate this knowledge to other youngsters okay that is where we are here for okay now so the key features I have just listed you out okay so we won’t repeat it now now coming to the technical session for the day see for the current day practice for today’s class I’ll suggest you two books one book is compulsory for all of you who are attending the class it is a 200 page book written by the World Health Organization for PSM graduates there is another textbook by abramson okay for clinicians there is a book by Holly a tan which is designing clinical research who can successfully conduct research now all this are freely available on the internet in PDF format if you do not get it just drop em in we will be sharing it with you okay regarding today’s presentation you need not worry this will be at your email id by tomorrow morning okay so you need not worry for that just be focused and try to be interactive to understand what is going on in today’s session okay now the very first thing what I’d like you to remember she never ever started a research who can successfully conduct research project with a half-hearted mind or in a very rapid pace see generally I have seen my clinician friends approaching me after collecting the research who can successfully conduct research and they say ok buddy just apply some statistical test and give us the p-value see this is not how research who can successfully conduct research is supposed to be conducted you have to have from the Bott starting to the last you have to plan everything you cannot do a research who can successfully conduct research by thinking ok this is my research who can successfully conduct research question I am going to collect some data and then it is the headache of the statistician to give me valid results it doesn’t happen and that is the biggest challenge in the Indian context where we are trying to go for quantity rather than for quality ok so we will have five sessions today the first session will be the development of research who can successfully conduct research protocol or the research who can successfully conduct research proposal now see this research who can successfully conduct research protocol works when we do our thesis whether it be our MD thesis ms thesis mps thesis our PhD thesis or when we are doing any form of large-scale research who can successfully conduct research ok these components are common for everybody ok now it has got 12 components as per the textbook of whu-oh any research who can successfully conduct research protocol has got 12 components the first component is the title of your study then we give a brief introduction into what form of research who can successfully conduct research we will do then we go for a review of literature we set some specific objectives materials and methods which is basically looking into the technical aspects like the study design the sample size the inclusion criteria next is the outcome variables.
What output do you want from this particular research who can successfully conduct research the statistical analysis which you would do the budgeting for this particular research who can successfully conduct research the timeline the ethical consideration they’re referencing when we quote from different articles and there are some specified and excels now see if you talk about the thesis now in the thesis you need not have a budget okay because you are doing it for practice of learning but rest on stays constant okay so remember this for your lifetime any research who can successfully conduct research you ever do please follow these twelve basic steps okay now title see when you ask me.
I say I’m a doctor okay it defines my profession similarly when you do research who can successfully conduct research your title should be a short description of the study with the name of the place life whether it is a community-based research who can successfully conduct research or whether it is being done in a tertiary care setting has to be specified in your title study design has to be specified so remember your title should have three components short design of study name of place and the study design now let me give you a practice question to p person who okay from Chandigarh since you answer imagine I want to do a research who can successfully conduct research on the feasibility of having a robotic surgery at PGI Chandigarh okay so what should be my title like Chandigarh friends if I want to look for the feasibility of a robotic surgery in PGI Chandigarh.
What should be my title of research who can successfully conduct research okay feasibility of robotic surgery would you like to add something into it because that is just a description of study you didn’t mention the place or you didn’t give us the study design okay Chandigarh still you are not close because place it’s not important whether it is Chandigarh or not it can even be in Delhi what more would you like to add okay PGI amar okay what is the study design you’ll prefer to do it as very good.
Patna so the question will be to study the feasibility of robotic surgery in a tertiary medical care in northern India utilizing a clinical trial or utilizing a evaluation method ok Chandigarh but now good ok to see in your title three things are important ok description name of place this name a place that does not mean you write it as Chandigarh but you mention it whether it is a tertiary medical care in northern India in southern India in central India in USA Atlanta anywhere and the study design so these are the three basic components of your title very very important submit a research who can successfully conduct research protocol without these three things the first thing for rejection is this okay now in production see when we prepare an introduction we think is like we used to write a long question or a long note in our MV based exams it is an introduction should be written like that no the introduction is very very specific you have to first define the problem systematically second you have to tell us the rationale of this service this particular research who can successfully conduct research third you have to state what is the research who can successfully conduct research hypothesis fourth you have to tell us what will be the application of this study and whom will this benefit and fifth how will it reach the targeted audience okay this is very very important and this is how you mentioned in your introduction okay fine so whenever you write an introduction for your research who can successfully conduct research protocol please just open this slide take down these five points and just start writing you will never ever get rejected okay a review of literature probably this is the most important background homework when which should be done when we are doing research who can successfully conduct research okay and probably this is where we youngsters lose our patience okay now see for the review of literature there is a selected search strategy okay now you can go for an electronic search you can contact experts or you can also go for a manual search okay now in electronic search the search engines which are available free for us as of met Google and especially Google Scholar in met which is for India specific and ambass now we will have a demonstration of PubMed in some time so do not worry I will be guiding you step wise how we use PubMed it is the most commonly used electronic search engine now contact with experts imagine you are doing a radiological research who can successfully conduct research and you do not contact professor Bhargav okay it will never never ever suffice your research who can successfully conduct research okay so that is very very important now if you are doing a community based research who can successfully conduct research and if you do not contact dr. abeba then you and will never get a success into it okay manual search the biggest source in India is the National Medical Library and also this respective libraries of your medical colleges okay now how do you search that is very very important for this you should have some certain keywords okay like imagine I want to do a study on prevalence of hypertension in tribals in India so my keywords will be prevalence hypertension India and tribals okay now we had taken a previous example where we were talking about the feasibility of robotic surgery in tertiary medical care so the key words will be yes Chandigarh what do you think should be the key words for your research who can successfully conduct research in PGI what should be the key words okay robotics surgery North India okay so yes you should have these keywords now next is you should mention how many articles you caught and how many reports are unpublished articles you came across that itemization is also very very important following this you need to represent it in a tabular format now this is a standard tabular format which is followed by The Lancet and the BMJ even for publication the same is followed by the ethics committee by central Institute’s so whenever you write your research who can successfully conduct research protocol please use this table when you first mention the author’s the title of the study the place and year of the study the methodology that is what kind of study design it is the sample size and the key results of the study okay very very important now next the fourth step is objectives now in the objectives remember you have to mention that these objectives should be smart a wise smart it should be specific it should be measurable it should be attainable it should be reliable and it should be timely achieved okay now I’ll give an example to it do not panic now there are two forms of objectives one is a primary objective the other is a secondary objective now remember when we do research who can successfully conduct research we are very much excited to have number of objectives in our study and that is dangerous see whenever you do any research who can successfully conduct research as youngsters take my word have only and only one or at max two primary objectives the reason to that is the sample size calculation is based on the primary objective the secondary objectives are there just to have some extra knowledge okay never ever try to have that add of Pepsi you del mangia more do not have that attitude in research who can successfully conduct research okay now let’s see this the research who can successfully conduct research question is pollution in Delhi is more than that it is in Chandigarh now what do you think should be the objectives for this research who can successfully conduct research question utilize the smart criteria and let’s see what you think is the answer but now Chandigarh Delhi people what do you think should be the objectives for this particular thing take 2 minutes of pause think about it and answer it students from Delhi have you joined us okay so Aetna what should be the s of this to measure the pollutant specific levels in the air okay Chandigarh how will you measure it how will you measure it that’s the question okay using the particulate matter good is this attainable do you think is this attainable do you think this particular thing is attainable yes it is attainable and that’s what we do with the monitoring system okay now what do you think should be the timeline it should it be every oddly every second every week every day or every month how do you think should you measure it okay monthly okay but now would you like to okay weekly on specific this okay so for this particular question the answer will be to measure the specific pollutant levels in air in a SPM on a weekly basis using a random sampling of these okay so this will be a very good objective for this particular research who can successfully conduct research okay so when you do it never our follow never ever forget to follow the smart criteria now materials and methods first the study setting where the study is conducted that is very very important whether it is a tertiary medical care or a secondary setup or a community that has to be clear right from the beginning second what type of study design would you like to use this will be detailed to you in the module second and third of this particular course where you will be having a detailed idea about the different types of study design the study population on whom will you generalize the research who can successfully conduct research the inclusion and exclusion criteria so we will have a look on the other components in just a while okay now we need to calculate a sample size for each particular study design we need to pick up a sampling method we have to set a study reference period that is a duration of study and the study instruments now see out of this today we will basically be focusing on how to construct a questionnaire okay because that is a very very important part of research who can successfully conduct research we think that questionnaire is nothing just go collect some data and then come and just enter it into the computer and get a result no it questionnaire is probably the most important stuff of research who can successfully conduct research now outcome variables now what is outcome variables see in research who can successfully conduct research there are four important type of variables which you should be aware of first is the independent and second is that dependent now what does this mean see imagine if I am talking about my weight my weight will depend upon my food my height and the level of exercise I do okay so in this example what is the dependent variable the example what I cited what is the dependent variable wait good what is the independent variable what will be the independent variable okay the nutritional status the food items I have this will be the dependent variable imagine I do a research who can successfully conduct research and I want to see whether your alcohol does have any effect on gastric cancer so in this example alcohol serves as an independent variable and the gastric cancer is the outcome now the common mistake which we youngsters make generally is we think that our independent and dependent variable are constant no say depends upon the research who can successfully conduct research question which will be an independent variable and which will be the dependent variable now this is the statistical definition now if I want to make it easier I’ll just tell you one thing independent variable is the cause or the risk factor the dependent variable is the outcome or the disease for clinicians this is a very easy way to remember what is an independent and independent variable okay now confounding variables and background variable another two variables which play a very very important role and this confounding variables are those who create all the mess or all the confusion now we’ll have a detailed discussion on this in the module second and third when we will be talking about epidemiological designs okay background variables very very important never ever forget in your research who can successfully conduct research to collect background data the reason for that is see imagine you are doing a radiological study on breast cancer okay now and you want to see the frequency of breast cancer in females who have had an episode of uterine cancer now imagine if you would not have taken an gender and you have sent a layman to just collect the data okay a layman goes and reaches to a patient okay the patient is is busy with something and collects the data from husband do you think our husband will be able to give you a valid data for a female having a new trying cancer will having also a breast cancer subsequently no it doesn’t happen so it is very very important to have the background data because you as a research who can successfully conduct researcher can see the form and see that the person has filled it that the respondent is a male so immediately you reject that particular entry okay this is very very important do not think that we feel ourselves as censors people by asking all this data okay now statistical analysis statistical analysis now remember there are two types of statistical analysis for every form of research who can successfully conduct research first is a descriptive analysis second is where we look for associations now this particular descriptive analysis you tell about the mean the standard deviation the median the rangers we just described the data frequencies percent a sample size these things but for Association we typically use statistical tests now see the problem with statistical test is see when we were planning to become post graduates we used to read statistical test as MCQs now in research who can successfully conduct research these rules are not that easy unless and until you plan the statistical test properly you can never ever get a good quality research who can successfully conduct research and this is what we will focus in the modules 4 to 7 where we will be training you in the basic concepts which outline statistics and also the statistical softwares okay now budgeting see I know those of you who are doing your thesis or who have never done a big time proposal would think that budgeting is not our piece of cake know this is one of the most important things which actually drives the feasibility of your research who can successfully conduct research imagine you have a budget proposal of doing a exquisite dresser research who can successfully conduct research which will cost you 10 crores but the government of India gives you only one crore so you have two options either you do not do the research who can successfully conduct research or you do a shortcut research who can successfully conduct research ok so that’s the reason budgeting is a very important thing because if you prepare your budget properly you have a sneak peek into the issues which which might arise in the middle of research who can successfully conduct research because of budgetary constraints now there are three types of costs very simple overhead intermediate and recurrent now what are the meaning of this see let’s talk about the hospital Ames the building of Ames is the overhead cost the building the intermediate cost is to get the instruments to buy the instruments and the recurrent Kostis the salaries of the staffs and the cost of the reagents the day to day travel allowance that day daily allowances all this okay now remember you should prepare this budget on an excel sheet ms excel is the best software to prepare a budget and remember to use formulas okay now you can see this this is a budget which was made you can see over here we have put a unit price units how many are the quantities that total okay what form of taxes you will have and since this proposal was submitted to a foreign agency we had also made a conversion into the US dollars okay so this is how you prepare a budget this is the standard format accepted by the Indian Council of medical research who can successfully conduct research also for preparing a budget.
Okay now timeline see this is one thing where we Indians are very poor see if I say that III you at nine o clock this means I will be their maximum by 9:30 so this is bad a research who can successfully conduct research doesn’t work in this scene research who can successfully conduct research you have to have a very specific timeline and for this particular timeline we use something called as a Gantt chart okay this is a Gantt chart now this is a very very specific way to represent the timeline now I will show you buying timeline for my thesis okay which I had done when I was a postgraduate okay so this is some form of a Gantt chart where I had to do it in a span of six months and I had given the month and this was this was how I had performed it okay this is very very important if you are planning to do a good quality research who can successfully conduct research okay now friends see all this what I am now making you understand I am giving to you see it is important for you to follow it whenever you do research who can successfully conduct research do not think this to be a theoretical class because see I am telling you all this components and in the afternoon session you will have a practical demonstration for almost one hour of all these components as well okay so please follow it whenever you are into research who can successfully conduct research okay now ethical consideration informed consent and participant information sheet now this is one piece of cake which is not for all if you are interested please just drop a mail I’ll be sharing with you with some key components which will help you actually to get a feel into how you are actually into this part generally this is a super specialization subject you must have heard about medical ethics okay so we cannot because of constraints of time we do not get into the details of this okay but they are equally important now references this should always be written in chronological order from introduction onwards okay now a neck sir there should be a participant information sheet and the bracket I have mentioned in English and Hindi c4 not in data’s in Hindi if you want to do a research who can successfully conduct research in West Bengal it should be in Bengali if you want to do a research who can successfully conduct research in Tamilnadu it should be in Tamil okay similar is the informed consent form the questionnaires or the interview schedule and the permission letters these are the four key components which should be there in your and XAR okay now so this is a brief introduction into how you write a research who can successfully conduct research protocol now I have only introduced because by the end of all the modules we will be covering all this twelve in great detail which will actually help you in doing a good quality research who can successfully conduct research okay now Delhi friends have you joined us yet friends at Delhi have you joined us okay so probably still we have not been joined with any friends okay but now in Chandigarh any form of doubts you would like to clarify in for these particular things what has been taught I’ll just wait for a minute any form of doubt which you will like me to clarify yes no just type it yes you have a doubt no you do not have a doubt okay but now okay fine now see when we are talking about a research who can successfully conduct research protocol and when we are talking about a final thesis or a final report or a article which has to be published we say writing a protocol writing our thesis is a very tedious job now why it is a tedious job the reason is nobody has ever told us that a good research who can successfully conduct research protocol only changes into a final thesis or a final report or an article now see if I am talking about our final report or a final thesis you should have the title you should have the same introduction you should have the same review of literature the same objectives the same material and methods the same budgeting or the financial crimes the same ethical consideration so see these seven points are still common so you just copy paste from your protocol imagine if you would not not have done your protocol properly would not do the research who can successfully conduct research properly and you would not write a report properly okay now results is what is achieved after doing the research who can successfully conduct research now there is a very important component in this where we are going for a discussion now what is a discussion now we think that discussion is nothing but just going for and back and four and one no see whatever result you get you need to have discussion using the review of literature now imagine if I say that CT scan is the investigation of choice for carcinoma lung eye which I have got in my particular research who can successfully conduct research doing a sensitivity and specificity testing I should also compare it with the different research who can successfully conduct research work which has been done till date okay followed by this is the strength now remember strengths if it is important hundred percent to mention the limitations it is important five hundred percent say imagine you as a research who can successfully conduct researcher a friends except your mistake and say these are the particular limitations in my study automatically the person who is reading your report will feel yes this were the practical challenges and that’s the reason this research who can successfully conduct research doesn’t answer this it is always wiser to list more limitation as compared to strengths okay but do not be over enthusiastic in criticizing your research who can successfully conduct research to such extent that people don’t accept it at all okay followed by this is the references now writing the references and art now we as undergraduate said earlier an experience to this for referencing I will be briefing this in some time as well which is a very important key part and excerpts and conflicts of interest nor these conflicts of interest it is very easy now imagine you are a surgeon and you are a laparoscopic surgeon and your wife is the head of an industry which makes laparoscopic units so definitely you will prefer to promote your wife and do all the surgeries as a laparoscopic surgery and that is dangerous when it is dangerous if you have not disclosed it now if you clearly mention it then it is considered not to be a conflict of interest in many settings okay now writing an article the only extra pointers about an abstract see it should be of 150 to 200 words and it should be structured or unstructured okay and it should be written as per the outline which I have detailed you over here see friends we always say that research who can successfully conduct research publication is a very essential stuff if you want to do well in the field of academics and that can only be achieved if you are having this particular flow of 15 items okay so please always be sincere enough to follow these 15 points you will never ever get your article rejected even from the best medical journals okay now selecting a journal is another big challenge now the very first step is generally you should prefer an international journal which should be indexed now see indexed where it is always better to go for a pubmed indexed because the Medical Council of India and also globally research who can successfully conduct researchers prefer articles published in a PubMed indexed journal impact factor now you go to any journals website impact factor is the first thing which will be evident because that is the thing which sells a journal now it should generally be more than one see for beginners you can compromise with the impact factor but never ever compromised with the index journal frequency of publication generally if it is a monthly one it is better because you have more chances for your article to be published look into the publication phase exorbitant fees is not possible for young research who can successfully conduct researchers to fund themselves so you should also look into this see the response time or the response day see whenever you go to a particular website of a journal they generally write that you will get a response in 24 hours or 48 hours now never ever get biased by this see whether it is a reality by looking into some published articles because in every article published they write that date of acceptance and the date when it is published so you need to have a clear vision into that ok now I’ll tell you a very secret trick see imagine you want to publish an article in international ie a journal international epidemiological Association Journal the trick is out of fifty references at least 10 to 20% of the references should be from that journal itself ok from previous studies which has been published in that journal see everybody wants that they should get a benefit of publishing your research who can successfully conduct research and this is an indirect benefit because this helps to increase the citation and ultimately the impact factor of that particular journal ok so this is a trick which you need to follow whenever you are selecting a journal ok sorry ok now article submission now see submitting the article in the journal is very very important which should be done not when you are half sleepy rather you should be done when you are awake and fully alert the reason there is a peculiar style for journal submission across every journals now second remember – is a particular sequence for each journal when you submitted these things have to be taken care of clearly before submission ok now this is one part of research who can successfully conduct research where you are the investigator now imagine you are reading the work of some person or some research who can successfully conduct research article and do you want to critically read it okay now you follow the same things you search for the same twelve or thirteen or fourteen points whether they have clearly mentioned it in the article or not the reason C one is called as reading one is called as critical appraisal C as research who can successfully conduct researchers we are expected to be critically appraising the articles now if I ask is it a good thing for banning alcohol in the state of Bihar okay everybody has their own view into it but we do not have a research who can successfully conduct research publication into it okay now if there is a research who can successfully conduct research publication we can critically appraise and see has this band provided any benefit to the society or to the person at large or is there a gross loss of excise taxes okay now these are some critical appraisal tools okay these are standard tools which are used by all the research who can successfully conduct research journals and also by the ICMR okay you can just google any of the tool you want to see it is nothing but a questionnaire okay where there is a some ten to fifteen components to critically evaluate a particular study design okay so for every study you can see that there is some on the other tool which is available now these are very very specific you need not mug them up whichever study you did just google it out get this analyzed and just move on okay with this we come to the end of the session one there is no break okay because we were quick enough to finish this okay now is there any form of doubt which you will like to raise in the second half of this session one any doubts which you will like to raise in the second half Chandigarh Patna and Delhi friends I’m waiting yes there is a difference between a structured and unstructured abstract see what is a structured abstract see a structured abstract is one where all these twelve points which I have shown you they are also returned in the abstract we write it as a title introduction material and methods so we have this an unstructured abstract is one where we do not have such sub points and we just write it like a say or a paragraph okay we just write it as a essay or a paragraph that is the only difference otherwise the material which is written is not much different okay Chandigarh any doubt okay now so we now start the session – okay where we will be talking about how to develop a questionnaire about PubMed which I will tell you about the review of literature and how to reference how do we actually perform the reference things okay see this is actually a technical session and requires greater degree of concentration okay now the very first topic is development of questionnaire now what is a questionnaire and how is it different from a interview schedule see these are very technical words never ever use them loosely see a questionnaire is a printed question which has to be completed by the respondent whereas interview schedule is a verbal mode of communication so never ever mentioned in your research who can successfully conduct research protocol that you have done a research who can successfully conduct research using an interview schedule okay if you are using a printed questionnaire or an electronic questionnaire okay this is a very very key point which generally needs to rejection in case of good committees if they are reviewing a research who can successfully conduct research proposal okay now types of question it may be an open and get and it may be a closed under and give you a very good example okay now if I ask to my friend at Chandigarh okay buddy you are a boy or a girl okay what what will be your answer Chandigarh if I ask you are a boy or a girl or a male or a female what will be your answer okay so the Chandigarh friend is a boy or a male now see this is a closed-ended question because we will write option one as male option two as female option 3’s undefined so since we have one as male we’ll just put a tick now if I ask my partner friend and say what do you think about the alcohol ban in Patna or what do you think about the alcohol ban in Bihar okay so that particular student might provide a huge description about this particular event and even share the personal experience which that particular student had prior to the ban and after this man and this is a open-ended question now you should be very very clear about this now open-ended questions are also called as free response questions the subject answers in his own word it is basically applied to qualitative form of research who can successfully conduct research like another example is what do you think about the pollution in Delhi for continuously distributed variables.
Also we can use a open-ended question closed-ended over here we give multiple choices like I told you one two three week there is another example what is your blood rope it can be a B a B or o okay now these were the types of questions now these questions are used to build a questionnaire one is a structured questionnaire one is an unstructured questionnaire and one is a semi structured questionnaire but in research who can successfully conduct research the most commonly used form of questionnaire is the semi structured form of questionnaire okay now structured example it is one of the example is the World Health Organization steps surveillance questionnaire now why am I saying ID to be structured see this is one questionnaire which has been developed by WH ER for a global use everywhere in the world this will be all the same you cannot make modifications in it okay now the key component of this is all the study subjects are asked the same question in the same particular manner okay like if I ask an African how much do you smoke the same question applies even in India okay semi-structured a mixture of the of both forms open-ended and closed-ended questions which is most commonly used now unstructured this is generally done in qualitative studies where the interviewer asked questions as per the participants responses if I ask you people why do you want to do this course now the answer might come from our partner friend okay I want to learn this because I want to work as a faculty in a central Institute so my next question will be okay which central Institute will you prefer why would you prefer that particular central Institute so this is a unstructured questionnaire which is used in qualitative studies imagine if I have a person from radiology and the person has to do a qualitative research who can successfully conduct research on comparison between CT scan and MRI and the satisfaction of patients this will use a unstructured questionnaire the same person will be subjected to a CT scan the same person will be subjected to an MRI and then my radiological radiology friend will go ahead and ask the patient how was your experience with the CT scan the same question to the participant again how was your experience with the MRI machine okay so this is what is a unstructured questionnaire now see once you develop a question and I’ll be showing you how to develop do not worry and this question and maybe self-administered how do you self and mr. C many times these days you will receive a email where you need to fill a form ok please give your feedback about YouTube about Paytm ok you just fill some components and then you say that if you fill this you will get 50 rupees off on Domino’s Pizza ok earlier this used to be sent by post and there is another call desk computerised self-administered questionnaire which is built on computer or it may also be based on a audio based medium okay depending upon the type of research who can successfully conduct research you just make these modifications the advantage of the self-administered questionnaire is it is simpler and cheaper and can be administered to many persons high metallicity i’d send a mail i had reached the entire world in just one minute now this is better when you are talking about the qualitative aspect or when you are talking about the behavioral aspect okay now practice exercise imagine you are a primary investigator and wanted to collect data on premarital sexual intercourse using a self-administered question and in medical interns now what do you think will be the problem using this particular type of method I told you the advantages now I want from you what will be the problem if I get this this questionnaire filled from the students attendee guard but now what do you think will be the problems come on yoga asleep cold too cold no food okay so one is may not want to share the details yes what other problems do you expect what other problems do you expect gendered okay a would not accept the questionnaire yes any other problem do you think false false data okay because of social desirability many might give you a false response to it okay so these are some of the issues with this self-administered question and which even we face you might have seen many many kinds of survey we never participate in it okay so this is a danger with this type of survey now the second is when you use an interview based questionnaire you have a printed one you go ahead and take an interview of the person one to one now using the same question what do you think will be the benefits of using an interview based questionnaire if you would have done the same research who can successfully conduct research what do you think would have been the benefits come on but now in Chandigarh okay it would have been more accurate more additional information okay sending it what do you think would have been the problem with this what do you think would have been the problem if I would have used this kind of questionnaire in an interview mode okay it would have taken more time okay what do you think what more problems would you have face imagine you you are a boy and you get a medical intern who is a girl but what would have been the scene over there yes the particular respondent would have been more shy to answer see these are some issues which as investigator you have to take into consideration now see there is no blanket thing that okay for this research who can successfully conduct research you do this for this research who can successfully conduct research you do this this comes with experience okay and this is one thing which generally young research who can successfully conduct researchers lack because we are not to that extent in the practical world as compared to our senior people okay now some others postal and Mail they have their own merits and demerits not commonly used okay now the best strategy which should be obtained for obtaining the responses is going for a mixed strategy okay going for a mixed strategy now construction of a question a very very important topic now remember you can use an already existing questionnaire okay now there is a catch in this okay now if you use the already existing questionnaire then you have to see what additional information does your research who can successfully conduct research yet does it at all yet any extra information or not because generally it has been seen that we do not have a scope of extra facility or extra benefits do not come out of a repeated research who can successfully conduct research and this is quite dangerous a second translation and back translation now what does this mean say imagine I want to ask what is the date today okay I want to ask you what is the date today or what is the date today you say sir this Sunday and it is 10:15 a.m. okay now imagine I transfer this into Hindi okay then it will be Aska dinky if I if I make this Oscar didn’t care the person will answer is today’s Ravi bar now see I wanted to know Oscar binky I and asketh regi I wanted to know what is the date and day of today so the answer changes so this translation and back translation should always be done by a person who has good command on both the form of your both the form of languages okay see if I tell you my example as not that good at at Hindi when I had joined my post-graduation okay so I had to take help of one of my friends who knew Hindi very very well okay due to this very reason you have to understand that it is always wiser to take help rather than to find out a shortcut okay now for nominal variables I will tell you what is a nominal variable in some time you should use as many response categories as possible okay now developing a questionnaire bahding very very important see be careful to avoid language that is familiar to you like we always say do you have diabetes mellitus now how do you expect a non-medical person to understand in a rural setup what is diabetes mellitus a radiologist asking okay we are now going to do a DT PS scan okay you need to just lie down the person will ask sir where should I lie down okay avoid unnecessary abbreviations it should be clear and unambiguous and must not be offensive or embarrassing like I will give you a few scenarios in this okay now imagine there is a question have you been on leave recently okay I asked to my partner friend have you been on leave recently what will be your answer what will be our answer but no friends no so this means our Patna friend has never been only leave recently attended what do you think is this question correct was my question correct very good.
I didn’t specify that time frame now if my question would have been have you gone to your home or have you gone for leave since 111th 2016 okay then the answer would have been then the question would have been more specific see you think this is a theoretical aspect but whenever we form a questionnaire these are very important points we should always be taken care into okay and the type of scale which you are going to use for this particular research who can successfully conduct research very very important now say what is validity and reliability now majority of you might have read it but I’ll make it simple to you okay I will be using I will be writing you may or may not write it now okay okay now see all of you in your life might have seen a bull’s eye okay this is a bull’s-eye now imagine you are throwing darts on it okay all of you know if it hits the center it is a valid result if it hits the periphery it is a not valid result okay now imagine if I throw five dots and five dots hit something like this so this is highly reliable but not valid highly reliable but not valid you see reliable indirectly can be also be told as a repeatable component okay if you do the research who can successfully conduct research or testing multiple times you will get a repeatable result okay now imagine you get a result like this okay so this is neither valid nor reliable now this is the idealistic scenario when you have maximum validity and reliability so this is the underlying concept okay now see why this is important as the research who can successfully conduct researchers to actually understand this see in your research who can successfully conduct research you are planning to have research who can successfully conduct research with maximum validity and maximum reliability okay how do you achieve that that is the biggest question okay okay how do you achieve that how do you achieve that now see to achieve this let’s take into this a very funny example which will actually clarify your dis concept.
Majan there is a MD doctor who is basically having a patient of hypertension and for fast 6mph is a confusion whether this patient is actually suffering from hypertension or not now he has a junior whom he sends to this lady’s house and asks junior to measure the blood pressure of the person 100 times now see this is one scenario where you as a research who can successfully conduct researcher are ensuring that there are repeated results now before this there is a homework which needs to be done.
What’s the homework the first thing you have to see that the instrument which will be.
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