Understanding research statistics, statistics in research can be very difficult especially if you try to understand research statistics, statistics in research in a vacuum and that’s why it’s very important that when you try to learn research statistics, statistics in research you should know the context for which you are studying it so that’s that this sticks will be more meaningful it’s also important for us to understand what we use research statistics, statistics in research for there are many areas for which research statistics, statistics in research is used and one of which is research statistics, statistics in research and that is what I will talk about today.
What is research and how is the district’s useful to research?
Research is basically one of the methods that we use in order to know in order to acquire knowledge research research statistics, statistics in research is not the only way there are many methods that we can use for example in order to learn something we sometimes rely on those who we consider as Authority in a certain field we read books that are authored by experts so that’s one method of knowing research statistics, statistics in research another method of knowing is by using reason we have the capability to figure out certain things by trying to make sense or trying to use reason for example you saw your friend and she appears to be sad and you also know that the results of an entrance exam or certain college was just released and she did not pass you can therefore assume that she might be sad because of the fact that she did not pass the entrance exam so using reason you’re able to know something research statistics, statistics in research sometimes you also know certain things simply because of gut feel or intuition that is also a source of knowledge but that is also a method of knowing in most cases in our daily lives we use these three methods in order to know and understand the world around us research statistics, statistics in research however there are certain instances when our questions might not be answered effectively by these methods your intuition and not help you something feels unreasonable but you observe it and figures of authority in a certain field have or are saying conflicting things about it so what other methods can use one other method is the scientific method research statistics, statistics in research because not all answers are available in books and there are many unanswered questions sometimes we have to rely on the scientific method in order for us to have our answers the scientific method research statistics, statistics in research is an approach to acquiring knowledge that involves formulating specific questions and then systematically find the answers that are as accurate as possible when we talk about science there are two aspects one is that it is a body of knowledge and the other one is that it involves activities for us to arrive at that body of knowledge and such activity is what we refer to as research research can be defined as a systematic inquiry research statistics, statistics in research using discipline methods to build knowledge that can potentially solve problems so what does that mean what is research all about personally I consider research as a means of understanding something as a means of understanding a phenomena or many phenomena in our world research statistics, statistics in research what is a phenomena a phenomena basically is an event if you look around us there are many events that are happening there are many things that we can observe and even feel why is the sky blue why do I get sad for no particular reason why am i motivated in some subjects but not in others some relationships last while some relationships don’t why is that research statistics, statistics in research so these events are what we call as phenomena and research is an attempt to understand these phenomena before this year began many of us in our lifetime have not experienced what it is like to be in the middle of a pandemic and because it is earlier event we are not familiar with this particular phenomenon and now that we are in the middle of it research statistics, statistics in research we are experiencing what it is like to be in the middle of a pandemic do you feel anxious do you feel uncertain do you feel a certain sadness associated with this pandemic and today there are many people conducting research statistics, statistics in research in order to understand what is going on around overall and if we will be more specific to the discipline of psychology many psychologists are conducting research to understand what is happening psychologically to people around the world research statistics, statistics in research so as what I have said research statistics, statistics in research is basically an attempt to understand a certain phenomenon more specifically understanding a phenomenon may involve trying to describe it as best as possible a rich description of a phenomenon can even be regarded as a theory research statistics, statistics in research oftentimes these elaborate descriptions become a cornerstone in to the understanding of the mechanisms of a certain phenomenon theories are very important in research and research statistics, statistics in research theories basically are a representation of the realities that we are experiencing a phenomena that we are experiencing although theories exist in order to explain certain events certain phenomenon you might think that we have the solution or the answers to all of our questions however the nature of theories is that they are not necessarily factual there are attempts at explaining something but not all of them are necessarily good explanations research statistics, statistics in research and thus another purpose of research is to test these theories by attempting to falsify these theories research statistics, statistics in research can be made stronger when the attempts at falsifying it fail meaning to say if I try to design a research that would like to dispute a theory and I fail at disputing it that is evidence to suggest that the theory might actually be a good explanation of something so that’s another purpose of research statistics, statistics in research to clarify or verify the existing on Stanly lastly because in essence all theories are problematic and has certain flaws research statistics, statistics in research is also important in order to improve these theories there are many theories that we now know today that are a product of years and years of changes and modifications and essentially evolution as much as our understanding of certain things change theories also evolve ultimately when we understand the world around us that also puts us in a better position to answer or solve the problems that we are experiencing as individuals and as a whole humanity not all research are the same research statistics, statistics in research can be categorized as basic research or applied research statistics, statistics in research basic research statistics, statistics in research is essentially an attempt to create knowledge not directly involved in solving a practical problem and it’s highly theoretical so basic research is basic in the sense that its main agenda is to generate knowledge whereas applied research is more practical in the sense that oftentimes it begins with a specific problem that needs to be solved immediately and the race to solve that problem requires applied research for example right now around the world scientists are racing to find a vaccine for kovat 19 what they are doing right now is applied research statistics, statistics in research researchers on the other hand who are trying to understand the emotional reaction of people to this pandemic with no specific application embedded in their objectives what they are doing is basic research statistics, statistics in research both types of research to some extent make use of research statistics, statistics in research as a tool however the base discussion will specifically be anchored on the research so here is a model that summarizes what goes on in basic research statistics, statistics in research so the model begins with reality so when we say reality these are the things that we experience around us and perhaps psychologically also things that we experience within us and if we try to break down this reality into components then we are talking about phenomena or a specific phenomenon so let’s pick a certain reality a certain phenomena research statistics, statistics in research for example we may have observed some relationships last some partners are faithful to what they said in the altar till death do us part while some relationships last for just week a month a year so why is it that some relationships are stable and some relationships fizzle out fast so that is something that we can observe or perhaps even something that we have experienced but what explains this aspect of reality what explains the stability of relationships so that is part of the complex reality now of course you yourself came forward a certain explanation you can pause this video and think about it think about that question try to explain why is it that some relationships last forever while other relationships don’t have you thought about it essentially what you’re doing is you are theorizing you are creating a mental representation of a certain reality of course your theories research statistics, statistics in research are personal theories which are different from what we regard as formal theories which we find in books formal theories are more elaborate and they are a product of years of research statistics, statistics in research and in essence they are more comprehensive in trying to explain reality so with the complex reality which we want to understand some people forward certain explanations just like what you did a while ago but in a more formal sense and those explanations research statistics, statistics in research of that reality is what you refer to as theory theory so theory essentially is a representation of reality and attempt to represent reality consider what you’re seeing right now what are you seeing you’re not seeing me you’re not seeing the real me you’re seeing representation of me a digital representation of me a series of ones and zeroes which is interpreted by your device and comes out to you as what appears to be me but what you’re seeing is not literally me what you’re seeing now is a close representation research statistics, statistics in research of me some days ago when I recorded this video so a theory essentially works like that as well it is a simplified representation of reality we will get to the rest of the model later on but let me focus on field the theory involves what we refer to as variables and that these variables have relationships and the theory research statistics, statistics in research also talks about that the idea that a certain reality can be represented by a theory is a notion of a particular research paradigm which we call as postpositivism before I continue I’d like to point out that not all research and not all researchers are the same fundamentally research statistics, statistics in research differ in terms of paradigms or research differ in terms of the very basic worldview of the researcher and when I talk about this worldview different researchers research statistics, statistics in research have different beliefs regarding what is reality so the belief about the nature of reality is what we refer to as ontology some believe that reality exists and that there is only a single reality what other researchers believe that a single objective reality is really difficult to pinpoint and it might not actually exist and the reality that is important is the one that we personally experienced the one which we experience here so going back the idea that reality can be represented by a theory is a popular notion of the research paradigm of positivism and if we are talking about research statistics, statistics in research although not mutually exclusive research statistics, statistics in research is used at its maximum in the paradigms positivism and both assertive ISM so what are the basic tenants of us positivism first is critical realism and what does that mean it means that most positivists believe that one reality exists or reality is assumed to exist and if there is a single reality therefore that reality can be captured and represented by a fury but postpositivism also recognizes that any attempt of capturing this reality will be imperfect because of our limited understanding and because of the complex nature of various phenomena research statistics, statistics in research happening around us therefore most positivism recognizes that whatever theory that we generate in order to explain something would have certain limitations these theories are imperfect or if I will be blunt theories to some extent are always wrong but not because they are wrong they are useless those are different things yes theories might be limited theories might be wrong but some theories are actually useful most positivism is also strongly associated with quantitative methodology although of course not mutually exclusive I am NOT saying that quantitative methodology is only used in most positivistic research certainly quantitative methods can also be used in constructivist research but there is a strong association between the two but that strong Association should not be regarded as mutually exclusive so when I say that most positivism believes in the existence of reality and that such reality can be imperfectly captured by a certain theory therefore when we consider theories theories basically are simplified explanations of the events around us and what do we see when we talk about events around us or phenomena more specifically the events around us involve different variables that have relationship with each other so in its most basic form a certain theory is comprised of things such as this variable a predicting influencing having an impact on variable for example exercise my have an impact on hell is that reality or some extent we may have observed that in the past to some extent it sounds reasonable so a certain theory might say that doing exercise is good for your health one might also suggest that believing in yourself and your capabilities that you can succeed in something can also resolve to actual success a while ago I asked you what is your possible explanation with regard to the fact that some relationships last and others don’t what you’re seeing in the screen now is a visual representation of a certain theory that attempted to explain the very question I posed a while ago this theory is the investment model of relationship stability by Rosabelle so at the very end of the model you can see right here stability of the relationship and the theory is suggesting that in order to arrive at that there are a series of events that could lead to that most immediately it such as that commitment to the relationship is a very important factor in relationship stability and furthermore to be committed one needs to have these three which are satisfaction with the relationship level of investment and quality of alternatives what are these three satisfaction basically is whether or not you are happy with the relationship certainly we are more likely to commit when we are happy in the relationship and we are less likely to commit when we are not happy with the relationship now how do we become happy the theory also suggests that there are certain things that can predict happiness in a relationship and you can see it right here to be happy people consider rewards or what they get out of the relationship so what have you gotten out of your relationship what are the benefits what are the rewards of being in that relationship second there are also certain costs of course in a relationship there is a trade-off on one hand there are certain benefits to it on the other hand you also have to split to some extent give up something there are certain costs and lastly we have the comparison level so that means to say that different people have different expectations of rewards and costs and in our comparison level does that expectation also contributes to whether or not we will be satisfied another factor for commitment is the level of investment in the relationship what is an investment it’s something that will be lost if the relationship or will be compromised if the relationship dissolves for example you have common property you have a joint bank account you have children you have common friends that when you break up those things will be confirmed lastly another thing that can contribute to commitment to relationship will be the quality of alternatives sometimes we are not happy with our relationship there is very little investment but we still want to commit why because we do not like the alternative and what is the alternative if we break up with our partner to be alone and if you don’t like that alternative then even if you’re not happy even if there is really not much investment you’re still willing to commit to that relationship sometimes there are people who are very happy with their relationship they have an abundant investment but because the alternative is very attractive sometimes that can still compromise their commitment so what you’re seeing in the screen right now in essence tries to answer tries to explain the question we post a while ago about relationship stability do you agree with what you are seeing we agree with this theory now remember it has been pointed out that most positivists believe that there is reality the reality of relationship stability and the model we’re seeing right now is an attempt to capture that reality however also remember that most positivists also believe that this attempt to capture reality is an imperfect one you might be thinking there might be other factors or you might be thinking I think I think this current explanation has missed out certain things or has has exaggerated the importance of a certain aspect of this model and that might also be true now this theory is limited but is it useful perhaps and if it’s a useful theory that’s good so on one hand we have reality the reality of relationships and then we try to explain that represent that reality with a theory now given this theory we now have a working understanding how relationships work and theories are important because sometimes it can be a source of answers to some of our questions so if one asks at a personal level how do I increase the chance that my relationship with this person would last then here you go these might be the ingredients that you need for your relationship to last long few lease definitely are sources of answers for research problems or research questions for example a researcher conducted a study and proposed a research question with regard to relationship stability or commitment or satisfaction the previous theory that we had to shine in the while ago can be a source of possible answers in these possible answers are what we call as hypothesis let’s say for example that our researcher is interested in relationship stability and he wants to know what are the major contributors of relationship stability the theory that we examined a while ago such as that most immediately commitment to our relationship influences stability of relationship therefore the researcher can hypothesize that individuals who have higher commitment to our relationship are more likely to have stable relationship.
If the research question is about commitment and this doesn’t have to necessarily be commitment to a relationship this might even be commitment to let’s say for example an organization the theory that they examined awhile ago can also offer possible answers based on response.
Theory the researcher can hypothesize that individuals will be more committed to a relationship or even an organization or other forms of commitment when that individual experiences satisfaction as some level of investment and have low qualities of alternatives so that’s the nature of hypothesis hypothesis should not be based on personal opinion.
Hypotheses are based on theory so now that we have a prediction or a hypothesis based on theory the next thing that needs to be done is to be able to test this hypothesis we should take note that the hypothesis involves one variables for example relationship stability and commitment and second the supposedly dation shift between the two a while ago we said that higher commitment will predict higher satisfaction higher commitment will predict better relationship stability so to be able to test this hypothesis it has to be represented again with something that is relatively concrete and that representation is data beta basically is another kind of representation in a series of representations this is the second one the reality is represented by a theory and the theory which is the source of our hypothesis can be represented by data beta is a product of measurement if you want to collect data on a particular variable or a set of variables you have to measure these variables when we say measurement there is a strong inclination for us to think that we are only talking about numbers or quantities however measurement is not always about numbers or quantities if you remember your basic research statistics, statistics in research class we have a form of measurement which we call as nominal scale or nominal measurement which are not necessarily quantities but basically means therefore measurement can also be qualities or categories so more accurately measurement is act of accurately representing a certain variation of a particular variable if we consider gender how do we measure gender what are the variations of gender if we consider academic performance what are the variations of academic performance one might think that the best numerical representation of the variation of academic performance will be once grades how about agreeableness what is the best representation of the variation of agreeableness some are more agreeable some are less agreeable there are personality lists that can provide us with a numerical value that supposedly represents one’s level of agreeableness now that we have data based on the tools that we have used to measure the variables in our hypothesis we can now analyze this data and that’s where research statistics, statistics in research comes in analyzing data or analyzing the relationships because theta is meant to represent the variables in our hypothesis analyzing the relationship of the data is also a representation of the supposedly lationship of the variables based on the hypothesis so if the hypothesis suggests that variable a has a relationship with variable B or that variable a can predict variable B we cannot test that at a conceptual level we have to measure them and thus variable a is represented by measure a and variable D is represented by measure and the way we test the relationship between the two variables is by examining the relationship between their respective measures and analyzing the relationship of these three measures is one of the things the research statistics, statistics in research can do for example we are interested in what contributes to academic performance and based on the literature one of the factors that have been suggested is receiving effort attribution Fiedler and effort attribution feedback supposedly can contribute better to a Democrat for mass.
So how do we test this hypothesis first we have to be able to measure the said variables perceived effort a traditional feedback can be measured or represented using a perceived teacher attribution feedback scale whereas academic performance can be represented by grades and to examine the relationship between perceived effort attributional feedback and academic performance researchers actually are examining the relationship between the measures of them and when they found out that there is relationship that then is inferred as evidence to the relationship between the two variables here is an example of a measure of teacher attribution feedback and that’s where’s that this takes comes in research statistics, statistics in research is defined as a set of mathematical procedures for organizing summarizing and interpreting information or data that’s one of the many uses of Research statistics, statistics in research course more specifically my examples a while ago are in the context of research so in summary it now appears that as researchers we are operating in different realms we are interested in reality the actual reality that we are experiencing this reality is represented by theory which can be a source of hypothesis predictions for our research questions and even for our personal questions but in order to actually examine the veracity of these assumptions hypotheses and theories they have to be represented again with something else and that is measurement now once we have examined the data and statistically analyzed it whatever result that we get would have a consequence on the theory it’s either the data supports the hypothesis or it does not support the hypothesis when the data supports the hypothesis that strengthens the field because the hypothesis was derived from the theory when the data does not support the hypothesis that somehow weakens or at very least questions the validity of the field because again the hypothesis was derived from the theory so this cycle of theorizing drawing predictions from the theory collecting data to test the predictions and ultimately this cycle will either weed out the bad theories because a bad fury will continuously generate hypotheses that are not supported by data or strengthen a specific field and what is the value of a strong theory what is the value of a theory that is consistently supported by data that theory now can be used for application so we bring the theory back to reality so in our practice as professionals best practices rely on good theories so in summary what we do as researchers is to examine the realities that we are experiencing the psychological phenomena that we are experiencing by either theorizing about them or examining the theories the existing theories that talks about these realities as researchers we test these feelings by by proposing research questions and forwarding hypothesis collecting data that represents the variables in the hypothesis analyzing the data analyzing the relationships of the variables and at the end of the day saying something about the theory and collectively the work of their researchers helps us identify the best theories and the best theories are the ones which we recommend that practitioners use in dealing with their clients in their professional practice and not only practitioners other people can also use these theories parents students teachers employers everyone so my short lecture on an introduction to research and here I hope that somehow I’m able to give you a bigger picture of what research is all about and what researchers do and how research statistics, statistics in research is integral or related to research.
I hope that you have a good day and I’ll see you next time.
Where to find great research papers on?
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