Global Research Letters

Introduction to Experimental Research Design


Do you want to understand experimental research design for project paper? Are you thinking of venturing into experimental research design for project paper? Do you have some sort of concerns of how to get into it or do you get scared of the terminologies used in experimental research design for project paper. If you have an answer of yes to any of these questions then this article is going to explain the basics of experimental research design for project paper.

Talking about research one has to be aware that there are different types of research and there are different paradigms of research design for project paper.

What is research?

Research, in general, is a process to discover new knowledge Educare for consideration, is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain or predict or even control an observed phenomenon. There are also different types of research and different ways for us to approach a research phenomenon. So for instance in general we will say that three different types of research are there. Each with its ghost cause and counts and we want to typically talk about it.

There are:

The description research design for project paper

A descriptive type of research design for project paper is where the intro is for instance, maybe a market researcher wants to understand and create a snapshot of the current state of the market environment. So in that way, a descriptive research design for project paper would be a very good approach for us to provide a relatively complete picture of what is going on. But it does not assess relationships among specific constructs or variables. In addition to that, it’s very general and it’s probably very restricted in that term.

The correlational Research design for project paper

The correlational research design for project paper is where we try to explain relationships among different types of variables so that we can potentially predict with some restriction of future events from our knowledge of the present and of the past. This is to probe researchers. This type of research would allow us to test expected relationships between and among variables

But we cannot draw causal inferences about the relationships among variables. As sometimes we do not know what variable occurs first and therefore causal relationships cannot be influenced.

The causal experimental research design for project paper

The experiment is a study of cause and effect, and it differs from conventional or other accepted experimental methods in that it is challenging. In doing so, it consciously changes one or more factors while attempting to maintain the same bow length for every bow. to observe a change in the outcomes for one or more factors. Hence, they frequently alter a number of factors in advance, and at the conclusion, we want to quantify its impact and any changes to the result variables.

The causal experimental research design for project paper is a research approach. Our main goal here is to explore the causal inference or causal impact of one or more factor variables on a result variable or an effective factor. This approach would allow us to conclude causal relationships among variables. But as we will discuss further soon, sometimes experimental manipulation at the Senate well-being of strong internal validity limits us in terms of generalizing our findings and that will limit us in terms of external validity.

Examples of research design on paper project


Just to show some examples, for instance, while we’re talking about descriptive research design for project paper a typical example would be a marketer, a business and a hotel would want to gather some preliminary information about the demographic profile of their business customers. So this is purely descriptive; we’re just trying to describe what is going on.

  1. Now certain type a second example, a consulting group wants to investigate how customers’ house consciousness at this level correlates with whether fast through restaurants frequency rate. So this way we have two variables clearly and we want to test a certain type of correlational relationship between them. But even with some sort of correlation relationship existing there we cannot conclude to say that it is the house consciousness level that influences issuance. First a few restaurant frequency rates by itself it is very likely that these two variables go on in a vicious relationship meaning that maybe it’s the fast food restaurant frequency late. What rates were later also influenced their house consciousness level and therefore it’s more correlational by Nature.

  1. Now the third part is a typical example of experimental research design for project paper whereas a park or resort wants to test and compare the effects of two new advertising themes. So they talked about two different versions of advertisements and they want to see which one might be able to draw better attention to draw higher levels of sales of their application packages. So that in the industry sometimes we’ll also call an experiment an a/b testing meaning you’re comparing two effects and trying to see their results to see which one is better. Now causal research design for project paper as we showed in the example earlier we’re trying to investigate the relationship of a cause-and-effect relationship. So sometimes, for example, something happens and then that would be our cost but meanwhile what kind of results does it draw that will be things that happen as a result of the cost? For instance, maybe my cell wants to go out and play but the weather is not in its best mood, and all of a sudden it’s a clap of thunder there, and because of that it could be that he’s not so happy at the moment and he would probably want some TV time. So when we’re talking about causal research it is very important to understand the main goal of experimental research in revealing causal relationships. The correlation is not caused by it and a classic example is that in the 18th century somewhere there is a classic phenomenon in the 19th century in Germany. There’s a classic study revealing that there is a positive correlation between the number of storks and the number of newborn babies and such a correlation does not necessarily mean that there is necessarily a causal relationship between these two variables. Sometimes we will be able to review statistical associations or correlations but that doesn’t necessarily mean that one variable is an explanation a causal explanation of another

There could be additional relationships. There could be the Y that is influencing an X. In addition to that, there could be another variable Z that is producing a relationship to both variables and that is why it’s causing a correlation between them.

According to the causation growth for you to establish a causal relationship between two variables you have to:

  • First of all, establish evidence of an association between x and y so that you know that there is some sort of relationship. But in addition to that, there are additional rules that you need to abide by.
  • Second, you have to try to provide some evidence that there’s a condition of time order of occurrence. Meaning for you to say that X is a cause of Y you have to demonstrate that out of manipulation that X occurred before Y.
  • The third one is the absence of competing causal relationships. So that means you can control other causal factors and go out of confounding variables. So the latter two are probably what we want to focus on in experimental research. With the second one many times, we manipulate the independent variable or the causal factor of X and then test the results to see the change in Y.

So for instance, as the example shown earlier where we talked about the two different versions of TV advertisements, we want to see that the TV ads were wrong first and then the times. Sometime later there’s some sort of the change in the sales of vacation packages. In addition to that, we want to provide some evidence of the causal mechanisms or the explanations between x and y and many times even with a TV ad. How does that drive sales? It could be that it’s very humorous, it’s really fun or it could be that it’s providing some new information. There are multiple different types of processes there explaining such a relationship between x and y. In addition to that if you’re able to have some control you’re able to rule out confounding variables by having clear control of the other experiment so that you can grow other potential confounding factors at an equal level. So that you can potentially grow out other explanations and that so it means an experiment.

What is an experiment by definition?

The experiment is a study of cause and effect and it is difficult from the traditional or other known experimental methods. In that, it deliberately manipulates one or more variables and tries to keep all its bows constant. To see the results change on one or more variables. So they typically manipulate several variables ahead of time and then we want to measure its effect and what’s changed on the outcome variables towards the end.

In addition, there are different types of experiments:

  • lab experiments
  • third experiment
  • A natural experiment is typically where you call students or other participants to a very finely controlled environment in a lot of settings. Then you have very clear control in the room. As they’re always new they are on site.

You have strong control and precise control of independent variables. But such an approach potentially means that you probably have relatively low ecological validity. Especially as compared to the third experiment or natural experiment. And that is our third experiment, on the other hand, you will be able to manipulate the independent variables but then instead of having it in a finely controlled lab experiment, where you have control over everything: the music, the smell, the scent, and everything. Now you can put it in a real-life setting.

Maybe a real restaurant so that you’re more likely to reflect on real-life situations in the study. But that potentially means maybe you would have less control over independent variables. In addition to that, there are also rare cases where researchers would have such treasure to access the opportunity of a natural experiment. For instance, sometimes there are cities where it’s naturally divided into certain districts while certain districts’ policies remain unchanged. Other district stores and policies get changed so that you would get to compare and see whether tourism policy change has an entrance on various aspects of the tourism ecological system. So this way it means that whatever changes appear to the independent variable are naturally happening means potentially you have no control over the independent variable. As it is the natural process of currents that do reflect real life has very high-quality validity. But this is also a very winning case and we want to be aware that it’s very expensive and it’s also very time-consuming. And that potentially also means you probably would have very little or too even no control over the independent variables.

If that’s sad that means that four different approaches to experiments are just within experiments. These three different types of experiments are different relative experiments that potentially have some sort of trade-off between their internal validity and external validity. So it depends on the type of research question that you are asking and also depends on your resources as well as your access to the setting to the environment. So that you would have to have a conscientious conscious and stressed choice and seek the balance between the two.

Different types of research paradigms and methods in social science research design for project paper

Classical circumplex models and some of the research designs for project paper methods are more obtrusive by nature. Meaning that you have River interventions that obstruct the participant’s life and behaviors. Some of the research methods will result in the exploration and findings of particular behavior systems. While some of the research designs for project paper are more universal by nature, revealing findings and experiments. Typically will just end somewhere that is more particularly focused or more particular behavior systems. If it’s food experiments specifically it’s more to CIV meaning you have specific manipulation of variables so that you are making some changes in your participants in India.

On the other hand, there are also differences among different types of experiments; some of them may be more focused, more generalizable, more controlled and more refined. Therefore their findings are more focused on universal behavioral phenomena. While some of them are Limor particular, it’s more restricted by field settings.

Experiment with terms of design for the project paper

The first set of terms we have is the independent variable and dependent variable. We do use independent variables and dependent variables in correlational research but in experimental design for project paper, it is different. In that independent variable is what we can control or what we manipulate. Well, the dependent variable is what we observe and what we measure. So we already know what independent variables are in our experimental design for project paper. For example, it is very simple here if we want to use an experimental design for project paper to test the wisdom of eating cheese. A folk with them eating cheese shortly before going to bed gives people nightmares. How do we test this folk wisdom if we want to use an experiment to test it? We’ll have to organize a group of people. For one group of people we give them a certain quantity of cheese at a standard time before they go into bed. The other group of people will not eat cheese before going to bed and then we will count the number of nightmares recorded by the two groups. So in this case the independent variable is cheese consumption and the dependent variable is the number of the frequency of night nightmares. So we already have independent variables for each participant.

Experimental design for project paper

The experimental design for project paper is differ from correlational design and the second term we have here is called conditions conditions. It is different values or levels of independent variables. So in experiment two design for project paper, we have two different conditions one is called experimental condition. That is the group who receives the treatment and the other is called control condition which is the group that doesn’t receive achievement. So in our key experiment we have two conditions:  one control condition, the group does not eat cheese before going to bed and we also have one experimental condition, that’s the group who eat cheese before going to bed. We may have one or more experimental conditions in one experiment.

So for example in that cheese experiment we may also want to test whether American cheese or pepper jack cheese gives people more nightmares. So we can have two experimental conditions: one group of people eat American cheese and the other group of people eat pepper jack cheese. The second thing is some experiments don’t have control conditions. For example the one you Larry just mentioned in the TV commercials that one doesn’t have any control condition. So you are just basically comparing two different TV commercials. How effective are they? So if you are only interested in two different experimental conditions you don’t have to have a control condition in the experiment.


The next term is hypothesis and we also have hypotheses developed in our correlational experiment. In an experiment we can direct our hypothesis in three different ways:

  1. First is the null hypothesis: which basically we assume that our IV does not affect our DV or there’s no difference on DB between the conditions.
  2. In a second we can also derive our hypothesis as an experimental hypothesis. Well we assume there will be a difference between the conditions.
  3. There are two ways for us to develop our own experimental hypothesis: one way is called directional, in which we assume one condition is better than the other and the other way to develop experimental hypothesis is not directional. Well we as we don’t know we assume there are differences but we don’t know which one is better so for our keys experimental cheese. Example if we want to divide a hypothesis as a null hypothesis we can say eating cheese does not change the likelihood of experiencing nightmares. If we want to develop it as a directional experimental hypothesis. We can say eating cheese increases the likelihood of experiencing nightmares. So we know the condition of eating cheese is better than the condition of not eating cheese. The other option to develop the hypothesis as no directional we can say in cheese changed the likelihood of experiencing nightmares but we don’t know which one is worse. Like eating cheese has more nightmares or not eating cheese has more nightmares we don’t know.

So there are three different ways to develop an experiment hypothesis. And how you want to develop, it depends on the literature review and also maybe the journal requirement.

Manipulation experiment design for project paper

The next we have is called manipulation. Manipulation is the term used to describe control of the independent variable to cause changes in the experiment. There are two types of manipulation: direct manipulation, which modifies the fiscal settings so our cheese experiment is using direct manipulation. Because for one group we give them cheese and the other group will not give them cheese. So that’s physical change.

The other manipulation is called indirect manipulations or sometimes we can also call it instructional manipulations. That’s how we changed our verbal instruction or sometimes written instruction to indirectly manipulate independent variables. That is because sometimes the independent variables cannot be manipulated directly. For example if we are using people’s stress level as our independent variable there’s no way you can directly manipulate the stress level. You don’t know what people’s stress levels look like. So what we can do is we can give them some verbal instruction. For example we’re telling them that they have five minutes to prepare a short speech. That they will have to give to a big audience so that we try to increase that group’s stress level. So this comes to the question of whether their stress level really increased or not? That means when we use indirect manipulation we have to always do a manipulation check.

Manipulation check of design for the project paper

It is a test or a little survey. Some items for people to fill out after the experiment to ask about their stress level. So it can be three items or four items with likelihood scale to ask about a house just a few and what we do is. After that we will compare this just level between the two groups. If they are significantly different that means our manipulation is successful and we can continue comparing our dependent variables. If that’s not significantly significant that means your manipulation has failed and you have to think about a different manipulation.

Assigning the participants into different conditions to design for project paper

Assign the participants into different conditions, there are three ways we can find people in two different conditions:

  1. First is called within subjects and some books or some are cows. In this design for project paper we each participant is tested under all conditions. So if we still use that cheese experiment as an example we will have only one group of people like 20 people and in the first week we will give them cheese to eat before they go to bed. And then in the second week we will not give them cheese before they go into bed. And then we collect the frequency of nightmares they have in two weeks and then compare. So one big problem with these within subjects design is the order effects which is an effect of being tested in one condition and participant behavior in later conditions. So in our cheese example or the cheese experiment that means if we give them cheese in the first week they didn’t have good sleep. Let’s say they did not have any means they didn’t have good sleep in the first week that may have a delayed effect. In their second week they won’t sleep. As well as usual , order effects the way we have to deal with order effects is called counter balancing. So that is how we test different participants in different borders so in our cheese experiment example for the 20 people we can divide them into two groups and one group of people eat cheese. In the first week and not eat cheese next week and the other group of people they will not eat cheese in the first week and then eat cheese. In the second week with this counterbalancing method we can kind of counter balance that order effect. So when we combine all their people together then the results may only be affected by the kaiser independent variable.
  2. The second type of experimental design for project paper is called independent measures or unrelated samples. So in this design for project paper each participant is tested in only one condition. In other words, for example, in our cheese experiment this time we will have to group people. Each group has 20 people and the first group each has cheese. And then the second group is not eating cheese and we are comparing their nightmares. In the same week a big problem with the true subject is the individual differences. So we know we are now comparing two groups of people and they are definitely different. Everybody is a different individual. So there might be individual differences that cause systemic bias. So for example maybe in one group we already have people that have sleeping problems and in other groups we have people that always sleep very well. So that individual difference will cause buyers into and will cause change in our results. So the way we try to deal with this individual difference is called randomisation.

Randomisation in design for project paper

Randomisation is a key concept in experimental design for project paper. So, randomization is when we try to randomly assign our participants into two groups. So I want you to be aware that random assignment is not random sampling. So you can still do a convenient sample and recall 40 people. But in these people you want to randomly assign them into two groups. So what was some in psychology experimental design for project paper is that when you design an experiment you should first always start by exploring the possibility of using related samples or within subjects design for project paper.

The two reasons: first you want to minimize the impact of individual differences again within subjects because you are using the same group of people under two conditions. So there’s no individual difference. Individual differences will not be an issue. The second of all is to save cost because always between subjects will require more simple size than within subjects. So in our sleep experiment if we do within subjects it is only 20 people but if we do the between subjects we need 40 people. So it’s an additional cost to recruit more people in a good way in between subjects and between subjects design for project paper is called matching.

Matching in design for project paper

Matching is a design for project paper in which we match our participants and assign them to conditions. So that there is an eco spread of ability on the experimental tasks between the conditions. So in our sleep or cheese experiment we can match our participants into the sleep world group and the sleep not well group. And they’re equal to find them in two conditions: one thing you have to assign your matched participants randomly. So that’s to say we have all the pairs when we match them and you don’t want to assign all A’s in one group and all Bs in the other group. You want to do A and B randomly into two groups.

Sample size in the experiment in design for project paper

A very rough rule of thumb is you need 20 participants per condition. This is a very rough rule of thumb. So if you want a better experiment design for project paper and if you want a better methodology you probably want to consider the use of statistical software. The G power three points.  The G power is a small software free you can download it online and then install that and try to do an ANOVA or Manova. You can pick the F test and you just assign a significant level alpha and a desired power. And when you put in all these three variables it will tell you what is the required sample size you need.

Statistical testing in experiment to design for project paper

It is a very common method to do a No or  or even simply like a test. If you only have two groups and one dependent variable. However sometimes you may have categorical independent variables and also categorical dependent variables. So for example the cheese experiment then you have to use the chi-square as your statistical test and if you have numerical independent variable and also numerical dependent variable, for example you have a moderator like the motivation or personality. Those you use like your scale to measure then you probably want to use a process which is a regression based tool to do your statistical testing.

The effect size and power in experimental design for project paper

You may hear these two words in experimental design for project paper and it is very important in experimental design for project paper. Psychology actually now requires people to report the effect size and power in any of their publications.

What is Effect size?

Effect size is the magnitude of the difference between conditions in an experiment. So that is how big the difference is and Kohan in 1969 proposed a reference to the effect size so he said no effect size is larger than 0.

4 median is between 0.4 and 0.5 and small is between 0.25 two and 0.1. He also assumed that in psychology effect sizes are typically small or medium. It is the same in hospitality. If you are using SPSS, a partial adder square is the effect size measure. They are used in ANOVA. So for example if you have partial adders well equal 0.16 that means 16% of the overall variance of your dependent variable is attributable to the manipulation of your independent variable.

What is power?

Power is their capacity of experiment to correctly reject the null hypothesis or the chance of detecting an effect of independent variable on dependent variable. Power is measured on a scale from zero to one. So the more powerful the experiment the smaller the effect size it can detect. So we always want to design a powerful experiment as powerful as possible. So we can figure out or detect very small differences in between conditions. There are a couple ways to increase the power but three ways are realistic. Some of them are not realistic.

  • First, how we can increase power is we can increase the number of participants.
  • And the second is we can use a related sample design within subjective design for project paper. So we exclude or rule out their individual differences.
  • And the third thing is to increase the significant level for example make the Alpha equals 0.

1 Instead of 0.05 entry in marketing studies it’s very common to see the Alpha equals 0.1.

Some tips in experimental design for project paper

  • First thing is there is no such thing as the right way to design for project paper an experiment. So there will be several ways, maybe many good ways to design an experiment. So don’t be stressed out to find it that right way. For instead you want to design a reasonable and meaningful experiment and conduct it.
  • And the second is you want to use reliable measures of the dependent variable. Reliable measures are to get multiple tires or multiple items. For example in sleep and cheese experiments you don’t want to just test them. Test all the participants on one day. So that there are so many confounding variables that may contribute to the nightmares that one day. So you may want to test them in a week or maybe in two weeks or maybe even in amounts that you want to give them multiple trials.
  • And the next is you want to do some pilot testing. Pilot testing is very important in experimental design for project paper. When you design an experiment you want to try it out on a couple small small participants to see if that experiment really works out or not. And you especially want to do some manipulation checks. If that manipulation check fails you have to do it all over again. If it’s possible you would want to do it. You may want to do a post experimental interview to figure out if there’s anything else beyond your control that explains their behavior in the experiment.
  • And the last thing and the most important thing in experiment is randomization. Randomize properly so randomization is the key to the experiment. The randomization helps you to rule out or reduce the individual friends.

About Research Journal Global Research Letters

Research Journal Global Research Letters provides you information regarding Experimental research design. It keeps you updated with the different research methods and different research types. The experiment research has also been further divided into different types. The important terms like power, sample size, effect, matching etc. Have been clearly explained to make your experimental research easy and effective. Research Journal Global Research Letters provide accessible information to fellow researchers to remove all the barriers that arise during their research. It appreciates that each topic needs a separate research strategy and one must be well versed with knowledge to come to effective and true results. As open science may help research and society, our aim is to broaden the frontiers of knowledge for the good of all.

Research Journal Global Research Letters provided valuable information on the key techniques of research such as manipulation and assigning participants. The different experimental groups and settings of manipulation. The variables that might affect and impact the research have been clearly described and explained by Research Journal Global Research Letters.

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