Have you ever wondered how some languages are similar to each other? While others are not at all understandable? For example, if a Hindi speaker ever goes to Pakistan and speaks with the local Urdu speaking people there, the Hindi speaker would understand them, even though they’re speaking different languages. If the same person goes to Punjab, have punjabi newspapers and tries to converse in Punjabi with the local people there with punjabi newspapers, then it might be a slightly difficult to understand them because of differences in words and slight accent change and if the same person goes to South India and tries to comprehend their language, then the person might not understand anything at all How come some languages are similar or outright different? Well, it has to do with how languages evolved due to human migration and sharing of knowledge. Most modern languages, like- Hindi, Nepali, Slavic, German and French, came from a common ancestor known as Proto Indo-European language. It is similar to how animals evolved over time. Languages in northern India came from Indo Iranian family of languages, while Dravidian languages in southern India are indigenous in nature. So how do we know for certain that this is the case punjabi newspapers. There is a whole separate study for this, which is known as historical linguistics or diachronic analysis there scientists study language structure, similar words and phonetics to determine whether two languages are related or not punjabi newspapers. Now, we will move on to how language specifically in India evolved. In western and southern Asia. A language was born known as Proto Indo-European. The language was mostly spoken by nomadic people who are in the process of taming the horse punjabi newspapers. We also later, see a split between the language where it was divided into centum and satem languages. The one we want to concentrate is the satem language, because this later forms the Indic languages. Moving on, a civilization starts to erupt in the indus basin known as Indus Valley Civilization, which is also known as Harapan civilization.
In it, the early language spoken was Paramunda, which is the ancestor of all austro-asiatic family. But then later, proto Dravidian language started to migrate and became the dominant language of the southern part of the civilization. The script that was used in the industrial civilization was pictorial in nature meaning it uses pictures or symbols to describe a word. For example, if we were to write belief in pictorial form, then we could draw a picture of a bee and a leaf, BELIEF. This combined with the fact that there is no bilingual tablet to decipher the language. There is a strong possibility of multiple languages flourishing there. But now they’re all extinct. After 1900 B.C., the civilization started to decline due to frequent earthquakes and changes in the courses of river. This is also the time we see the arrival of indo-Aryans. They also brought vedic sanskrit in the subcontinent the aryans like the new place and decided to settle here during this period We see high contact between proto-dravidian and Vedic Sanskrit. They both co-evolve parallely to form the dravidian and classical Sanskrit, respectively punjabi newspapers. The evolution was caused due to mutual borrowing of vocabulary, phonetics and language structure punjabi newspapers. They also put it all together to use retroflex sound which are sounds produced with the tip of your tongue curled back towards the hard pallate examples of retroflex sounds are ‘dh’ or ‘ra’. Now, moving on out of the 16 empires, Magadh rose to power. And after a series of overthrowing the monarch and expanding the empire later became the mauryan empire during maurya empire trade between Greece and India flourished due to a guy named Alexander the Great punjabi newspapers. It was due to this period we see Greek influence in language where Sanskrit adopted a lot of words from Greek mostly on warfare and writing. sanskrit evolved and was considered perfectly constructed and refined it was used by poets, authors and high officials punjabi newspapers. This was not the case of the local people who adopted a language known as Prakrit.
It was the vernacular language used in India from third century B.C. to eighth. century C.E. Ashoka used one of those Prakrit to write his edicts punjabi newspapers. There were many prakrit and based on the location and contact went on to become their own separate languages punjabi newspapers. Sanskrit and Dravidian alongside Prakrit were the dominant languages in India until the Afghans and Turkic Dynasty set their eyes on India punjabi newspapers. From 11th century onwards, Persian influence started to rise in the Indian subcontinent due to Turkic and Afghan dynasties like Ghaznavid empire, Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire punjabi newspapers. This three empires dominated the whole of northern India. and that’s why we see a lot of Persian influence on Sanskrit and Prakrit. unlike Dravidian languages, which was conquered very briefly by the Persians. During the Delhi Sultanate, persian became the lingua franca of India, which means the language specifically used to connect different groups of languages punjabi newspapers. Many Indians started to adopt this language as their second language punjabi newspapers. Soon Hindustani language was developed which came from the Khariboli dialect of west-Delhi. This language replaced Persian as the lingua franca of India. Hindustani, is a plural-centric meaning it’s a language with two different standard varieties, Urdu and Hindi punjabi newspapers, Urdu is more persianized and written in Perso-Arabic script. while Hindi is more Sanskritized and written in Devnagari script. The gap between Hindi in Urdu got even more big with the decline of Mughal Dynasty and the rise of British East India Company punjabi newspapers. Britishers came as traders, but they soon decided to capture and conquer the whole of India. British imperialism in 19th and 20th century had major impact on the language of India punjabi newspapers. Urdu was chosen as the court language of India and this contributed to the separation of the two languages even after the independence and partition of India and Pakistan. Both languages, where casual speakers are linguistically same, as they are both mutually intelligible to each of them, even though there are some changes in accent and words.
Moving on to the English English now became the lingua franca of the country. and this resulted in a language that was a weird mix between English and hindi called Indian English punjabi newspapers. Its English language, but has changed due to the influence of Indian languages. These changes are seen as incorrect as they cause problems when communicating with other English speakers punjabi newspapers. For example, if you go to a foreign vegetable market to ask for Bhindi and go tell her- “I want ladyfinger!” She would probably freak out because Bhindi is called “okra” in English. Same with Brinjal, which is called bengan in Hindi and eggplant in English. Apart from vocabulary there might also be differences in sentence structure such as “Hello, myself Amitabh.” which in British English means “I am Amitabh.” And it’s not just that only British influence India. India also had impacted their language. The English looted a lot of words from Hindi and Sanskrit, even the word “loot” was looted. After the independence, Hindustan was divided by religion into present day India which is majority Hindu and Pakistan and Bangladesh, which are majority Muslim punjabi newspapers. This seperation made Urdu and Hindi to be regarded as two different languages due to political and social differences, even though for casual speakers it’s the same language punjabi newspapers. So I hope this video has made you understand about language evolution and why some languages can be so similar and some totally not understandable. This video was a simplified and biased, as I don’t talk about other various theories and its reasonings. If you want to know more about in depth about this topic, then you can refer to my article, which has more detailed explanation of what I spoke about in the video. Thank you for watching.